Discussion:
Westernization of of Islam
(too old to reply)
Islam is LOSING!
2005-09-10 22:53:16 UTC
Permalink
Islam is weakening and cracks are everywhere evident.

The Westernizing influences pushed by Bush and the West are taking
their toll on the thinking of the average Muslim as they turn their
backs on many of the traditional teachings of the Quran and instead
look to the West for leadership on how to organize their societies.

Read on ....
The new poll also found that growing majorities or pluralities of
Muslims now say that democracy can work in their countries and is not
just a Western ideology. Support for democracy was in the 80 percent
range in Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon and Morocco. It was selected by 43
percent in Pakistan and 48 percent in Turkey -- the largest blocks of
respondents in both countries because significant numbers were unsure.

The poll results are GOOD NEWS for the BUSH ADMINISTRATION, which has
faced difficulties seeing gains in its two top foreign policy goals --
combating terrorism and promoting democracy in the Islamic world.

http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2005/07/15/MNGKCDOGV61.DTL
LeNoir
2005-09-10 22:58:02 UTC
Permalink
Post by Islam is LOSING!
Islam is weakening and cracks are everywhere evident.
UK Mosque Goers to Double Church Attendance: Study

CAIRO , September 4, 2005 (IslamOnline.net) - The number of Muslims
praying at British mosques will be double the number of church goers by
2040, according to a study by the British-based association Christian
Research.

The study, The Future of The Church, said that there will be nearly
twice as many Muslims at prayer in mosques on Friday as Christians
attending Sunday services, reported the Telegraph on Sunday, September
4.

British government and academic sources said in 2004 that some 930,000
Muslims go to the mosque at least once a week against 916,000 regular
worshipers in the Church of England, the mother church of the Anglican
communion.

Mosques in Britain range from the splendor of Regents Park Mosque, and
the big central mosques in Birmingham and Manchester , to more modest
structures, often converted from other buildings, according to the BBC.


The first mosque in Britain is likely to have been one recorded in 1860
in Cardiff .

Another early British mosque was established in 1887 in Mount Vernon
Street in Liverpool , and moved to Brougham Terrace in 1889, where the
building, which is now a Registry Office, continued to be used as a
mosque until 1908.

Britain 's first purpose-built mosque was built at Woking in Surrey in
1894 with money from the ruler of Bhopal , Shah Jehan.

In 1940 the British government allocated a sum of up to £100,000 to
buy a site for a mosque in London .

In 1944 the Islamic Centre was opened in London on 2.3 acres of land at
Hanover Gate in Regent's Park given by King George VI to the UK Muslim
minority.

In 1977 the Central Mosque, usually referred to as the Regent's Park
Mosque, was opened on the same site.

There is no official estimate of the number of mosques in Britain ,
home to around 2.5 million Muslims.

Plummet

The study said that the number of Christians attending Sunday service
will fall by two thirds over the next three decades.

It expected the total membership of all the denominations to fall from
9.4 per cent of the population to under only five per cent by 2040.

The study also anticipates that the poor attendance will force some
18,000 churches to close.

"I hope that these findings concentrate minds in what is becoming a
real crisis," said Peter Brierley, the executive director of Christian
Research.

Brierley, who has been collating Church figures for 40 years, said the
study should act as a "wake-up call" to Church leaders.

Long-time Decline

Figures show that the main denominations, from the Church of England,
the Roman Catholics to the Methodist and United Reformed Churches, are
suffering from long-term decline of worshipers.

"The truth is stark," said Bishop of Manchester, Rev Nigel McCulloch,
who has been involved in previous Christian Research reports.

"What these statistics need to do is to galvanize the Church into
realizing that it must communicate the gospel where people are or we
will not deserve to have a Church."

Brierley said the churches had begun taking initiatives to tackle the
falling numbers of church goers.

http://islamonline.net/English/News/2005-09/04/article06.shtml
LeNoir
2005-09-10 23:00:03 UTC
Permalink
Post by Islam is LOSING!
Islam is weakening and cracks are everywhere evident.
The Westernizing influences pushed by Bush and the West are taking
their toll on the thinking of the average Muslim as they turn their
backs on many of the traditional teachings of the Quran and instead
look to the West for leadership on how to organize their societies.
http://frontpagemagazine.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=19341

The United States of Islamexica?
By Julia Gorin

I have a joke that goes: First we got bilingual schools--where
Spanish-speaking kids aren't learning English, but English-speaking
kids are reciting the Pledge of Allegiance in Spanish. Then there was
the California school where students were made to dress, fast and pray
like Muslims for three weeks. What's next for American public school
children? Islamic prayer in Spanish?

Well, I thought I was kidding. Now that Venezuelan presidential
dictator Hugo Chavez is forging alliances within Iran, Iraq and Libya
and is rumored to be supplying false documents to 300 or so al-Qaida
terrorists, I'm not so sure. And when Ricky Martin turned up in Jordan
recently, donning a black-and-white Palestinian kaffiyeh reading
"Jerusalem is Ours," I realized there really might be something to
this trend (after I got past my initial confusion that oh no, Puerto
Rico also wants Jerusalem?!).



Islamic Society of North America numbers show there are about 40,000
Latino Muslims in the U.S., according to a Christian Science Monitor
article last year, and "Latinos account for six percent of the 20,000
Muslim conversions in the United States each year, according to a
report published by the Council on American-Islamic Relations."



The Monitor item, out of Union City, NJ was titled "U.S. Latinas Seek
Answers in Islam," and began by describing Jasmine Pinet as she "sits
on the steps outside a mosque here, tucking in strands of her burgundy
hair beneath a white head scarf, and explaining why she, a young
Latina, feels that she has found greater respect as a woman by
converting to Islam.



"'They're not gonna say, "Hey mami, how are you?"' Ms. Pinet says of
Muslim men. 'Usually they say, "Hello, sister." And they don't look at
you like a sex object.'....Anecdotal evidence suggests that the number
of Latino converts to Islam may be rising."



No kidding. Does the name Jose Padilla, aka Abdullah al-Muhajir, ring
a bell? That's the former Chicago gang member and Muslim convert who
was convicted last year for plotting to either unleash a dirty bomb or
nuke here, or just blow up New York apartment buildings. Padilla has
company: the South American tri-border region of Brazil, Paraguay and
Argentina has become a training and hideout nexus for Middle Eastern
terror groups like Hamas and Hezbollah. And last week, a group of
Mexicans took an example from Palestinians while crossing into
California illegally, throwing baseball-sized rocks at an overhead
Border Patrol helicopter, gashing the rotor and forcing the pilot to
make an emergency landing.



On a more benign note, a recent CBS news report revealed that Iran is
the nose job capital of the world. Whose ideal-nose photo are the
young women clutching when they walk into the plastic surgeon's
office? J. Lo's!



We may not be at the point of a Spanish-language Koran-study elective
in schools yet, but the Latin-Muslim vogue that's been picking up
steam calls for at least some new vocabulary. To describe the 40,000
Latino Muslims, I suggest the term Larabinos, and for the Jennifer
Lopezes of Iran--since Iranians are not Arabs--the more accurate,
post-operation classification would be Muslinas.



Lending itself to the Hisparabic chic is Michigan Rep. John Conyers'
Web site, which offers to translate the page into either of two
languages: Spanish or Arabic. Not to bolster the gruff "Speak
English!" crowd, but senior citizens aside, if you're Hispanic, don't
speak English and vote for Conyers, you're probably looking to help La
Raza give parts of the country back to Mexico. And if you're a
non-senior-citizen Muslim who doesn't speak English and votes Conyers,
you're probably looking to Islamicize the country. Were these two
groups to find a common language, say Sparabic, they could merge into
a single entity called Muslicans, and form a fusion extremist wing
named al-Raza or La Qaida-which, under the guiding principle of "Su
casa es mi casa," would work toward the creation of the United States
of Islamexica.
Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
2005-09-10 23:19:30 UTC
Permalink
<<http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&ct=res&cd=1&url=http%3A//www.taipeitimes.com/News/world/archives/2005/08/16/2003267938&ei=7mgjQ72yD4jqaIXW0fEC>>


AFP , BEIJING
Tuesday, Aug 16, 2005,Page 5

Authorities in China's Muslim-majority Xinjiang region have detained a
Uighur woman and 37 of her students, some as young as seven, for
studying the Koran, a rights group said yesterday.

Aminan Momixi, 56, was teaching the Koran to the students aged between
seven and 20 at her home on Aug. 1 when police burst in and arrested
her, the German-based World Uighur Congress said.

Her students, most of whom were primary and secondary school pupils,
were also arrested and some remain in detention, it said.

Police confiscated 23 copies of the Koran, 56 textbooks on the Koran, a
hand-written manuscript and other religious materials, the organization
said. Momixi was accused of "illegally possessing religious materials
and subversive historical information," the congress said, adding that
she had been denied access to a lawyer.

A police officer confirmed the detentions, and added, "This is our
internal issue, we cannot disclose the reason."

The congress' spokesman Dilxat Raxit said some children had been
released after parents paid fines of between 7,000 and 10,000 yuan
(US$863 and US$1,233). He did not know how many were still detained.

"Some parents simply can't afford it. They live in the countryside and
have to sell their cows and yaks to get their children out," he said.

Raxit said the parents just wanted their children to learn moral values
which the Koran taught them. China bans all religious activities outside
state control.

"They just want their children to learn the Koran, the most basic
religious knowledge, during the summer holiday," he said.

Uighurs are a Turkish-speaking minority of 8 million whose traditional
homeland lies in the oil-rich Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region in
northwestern China.

Xinjiang has been autonomous since 1955 but continues to be the subject
of crackdowns by Chinese authorities, who have been accused by rights
groups of religious repression against Uighurs in the name of
counter-terrorism efforts.

Raxit denied that Muslim religious education leads to terrorism.

"It has no link to that whatsoever. What have seven-year-old children
got to do with terrorism?" he said.

In a 114-page report released this year, Human Rights Watch and Human
Rights in China said Chinese policy in Xinjiang "denies Uighurs
religious freedom, and by extension freedom of association, assembly,
and expression."

"Uighurs are seen by Beijing as an ethno-nationalist threat to the
Chinese state," said Sharon Hom, executive director of Human Rights in
China.

"As Islam is perceived as underpinning Uighur ethnic identity, China has
taken draconian steps to smother Islam as a means of subordinating
Uighur nationalist sentiment," she said.
lanman
2005-09-11 04:09:10 UTC
Permalink
On Sat, 10 Sep 2005 23:19:30 GMT, Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
Post by Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
<<http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&ct=res&cd=1&url=http%3A//www.taipeitimes.com/News/world/archives/2005/08/16/2003267938&ei=7mgjQ72yD4jqaIXW0fEC>>
AFP , BEIJING
Tuesday, Aug 16, 2005,Page 5
Authorities in China's Muslim-majority Xinjiang region have detained a
Uighur woman and 37 of her students, some as young as seven, for
studying the Koran, a rights group said yesterday.
Aminan Momixi, 56, was teaching the Koran to the students aged between
seven and 20 at her home on Aug. 1 when police burst in and arrested
her, the German-based World Uighur Congress said.
Her students, most of whom were primary and secondary school pupils,
were also arrested and some remain in detention, it said.
Police confiscated 23 copies of the Koran, 56 textbooks on the Koran, a
hand-written manuscript and other religious materials, the organization
said. Momixi was accused of "illegally possessing religious materials
and subversive historical information," the congress said, adding that
she had been denied access to a lawyer.
A police officer confirmed the detentions, and added, "This is our
internal issue, we cannot disclose the reason."
The congress' spokesman Dilxat Raxit said some children had been
released after parents paid fines of between 7,000 and 10,000 yuan
(US$863 and US$1,233). He did not know how many were still detained.
"Some parents simply can't afford it. They live in the countryside and
have to sell their cows and yaks to get their children out," he said.
Raxit said the parents just wanted their children to learn moral values
which the Koran taught them. China bans all religious activities outside
state control.
"They just want their children to learn the Koran, the most basic
religious knowledge, during the summer holiday," he said.
Uighurs are a Turkish-speaking minority of 8 million whose traditional
homeland lies in the oil-rich Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region in
northwestern China.
Xinjiang has been autonomous since 1955 but continues to be the subject
of crackdowns by Chinese authorities, who have been accused by rights
groups of religious repression against Uighurs in the name of
counter-terrorism efforts.
Raxit denied that Muslim religious education leads to terrorism.
"It has no link to that whatsoever. What have seven-year-old children
got to do with terrorism?" he said.
LOL. We weren't brainwashing our children to become martyrs, sir.
Honest!
Post by Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
In a 114-page report released this year, Human Rights Watch and Human
Rights in China said Chinese policy in Xinjiang "denies Uighurs
religious freedom, and by extension freedom of association, assembly,
and expression."
"Uighurs are seen by Beijing as an ethno-nationalist threat to the
Chinese state," said Sharon Hom, executive director of Human Rights in
China.
"As Islam is perceived as underpinning Uighur ethnic identity, China has
taken draconian steps to smother Islam as a means of subordinating
Uighur nationalist sentiment," she said.
No CAIR equivalent in China, eh?



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Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
2005-09-11 01:36:34 UTC
Permalink
lanman wrote:

. . .
Post by lanman
Post by Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
"As Islam is perceived as underpinning Uighur ethnic identity, China has
taken draconian steps to smother Islam as a means of subordinating
Uighur nationalist sentiment," she said.
No CAIR equivalent in China, eh?
LOL

"Smothering" islam sounds like a fun job.
LeNoir
2005-09-10 23:01:29 UTC
Permalink
Post by Islam is LOSING!
Read on ....
The new poll also found that growing majorities or pluralities of
Muslims now say that democracy can work in their countries and is not
just a Western ideology.
Father Viacheslav from Church to Mosque

Viacheslav Polosin, a former priest of the Russian Orthodox church and
chairman of the Committee of the Supreme Soviet on Freedom of
Conscience, recently announced his conversion from Orthodoxy to Islam.
This unprecedented event of the adoption of the religion of the Prophet
by a prominent Orthodox clergyman was a surprise for many.

The former archpriest is suspected of psychological illness or of
subtle political calculation. But he himself speaks of his own free,
spiritual, philosophical choice: "As far as I know, this is the
second time in your life when you have officially announced a change in
your worldview. From childhood I believed in God, in my spirit.

Later, when I was in the university, I came across Orthodox literature
and went to the church and found there something that I had not seen in
philosophy classes. I do not regret that; I learned a lot there. I
submitted my documents to the ecclesiastical seminary in 1979 and have
now, after twenty years, given an interview to the journal "Musulmane;"
these are two stages in the development of my life."

Interview with Musulmane:

"Several years of intense work have brought me to the conclusion that
the Koran does not contain an assimilation of the Creator God to his
creation, humanity, which is anthropomorphism, the essence of paganism.
There is no basis for the ritual practice of appeasing God like some
kind of human ruler. . . .

I have decided to bring my social status into conformity with my
convictions and to bear public testimony that I consider myself a
follower of the great tradition of the correct belief and of the
prophets of monotheism, beginning with Abraham, and thus I do not
consider myself any longer either a clergyman or a member of any
Orthodox church. . . . As regards possible penalties, we all are mortal
and all sooner or later will depart from this life, so it is better to
depart from it abiding in the Truth and not in spiritual ambivalence or
in the delusions of human fantasy.

With regard to the practical difficulties, including the Arabic
language, I must place my hopes in help and cooperation from my new
brethren. My will fully shares this worldview choice."

How did your clerical path evolve?

Within the church circles of Moscow I was not "my own person." There
also were family circumstances which forced me to request ministry in
Central Asia. I served briefly in Frunze and somewhat longer in
Dushanbe. There I dealt with Islamic culture and the eastern mentality
for the first time, which made a deep impression on my soul.

After half a year I was ignominiously deprived of my registration for
disobedience to secular authorities, that is, to the commissioner for
religious affairs. For three years I was not accepted anywhere and was
in complete disgrace. In 1988, when perestroika began, I was offered a
half-destroyed church near Obninsk. From there I was elected in 1990 as
a member of the soviet of the RSFSR.

The position of the Moscow patriarchate

For the Moscow patriarchate, the announcement by Archpriest Viacheslav
Polosin of his conversion to another faith came as a complete surprise.


In the Department of External Church Relations his move is explained as
instability of character and convictions and a quick "subsequent
change" of religious views is predicted. In the patriarchate there is
an inclination to let the matter drop, relying on the decision of Fr
Viacheslav's ruling bishop, Archbishop Kliment of Kaluga and Borovsk.

Were you suspected of conversion to Protestantism?

American Protestants, who in 1991 arrived in Russia in abundance and
whom I received, proposed that we begin our meeting with prayer.

But I categorically objected, saying that this was a secular
institution and that I protected freedom of conscience and thus there
must not be any prayer here.

I was cordial with Protestants, but where this rumor that I wanted to
adopt Protestantism came from, I don't know.

For many it is a puzzle what your real position on the new law on
freedom of conscience of 1997 is? Some consider you its author and some
recall that you have frequently criticized the law itself.

As long as I am a state employee I cannot discuss the whole truth about
this law. I participated in the writing of this law as one of fifteen
members of the working group and I had very little influence.

Then the law was presented to the Duma where work on it went forward.

I can consider myself a coauthor of what resulted from this work. But
the demonization of the law was necessary to those circles and forces
who figured on being able to make a name and money for themselves on
the basis of the negative events that arose around the country.

Actually the law upheld the principles of a secular state and
maintained the situation.

Was your religious quest provoked by your displeasure with formal
Orthodoxy?

While I was working in the state apparatus I began to see more clearly
how various activities within the church or politics affect the life of
the people.

Some people try to interpret Christianity so as to justify the
irresponsibility of the government, giving it an image of divine
ordination. There are similar examples in the history of the Islamic
world: khans, Turkish sultans, palace intrigues of the Sublime Porte.
In the Koran viewing the government as "God's anointed" is strictly
forbidden. It is said that if someone usurps power and a Muslim
tolerates this, then he is an accessory to this sin.

In the Ottoman empire there was a stagnation of Muslim culture-the cult
of the military, violence, slavery. Islam degenerated there. The
Revelation itself is a different matter.

What has been the reaction of your new Muslim brethren to your
decision?

My interview with the journal Musulmane provoked lively interest, so
much so that it was necessary to put out another printing.

What has been the reaction on the part of your leadership in the Duma?

Some naturally will be unhappy, but I don't care to please everyone. I
think that nothing will change in my work in the duma. I do not intend
to criticize Christianity. When I was within Orthodoxy, I criticized it
rather harshly. Now I don't. Islam, as it is presented in the Koran, is
the most democratic religion because it contains a prohibition of
tyranny. There are no mediators of a priestly caste or anointed
monarchs in the Koran.

Viacheslav Polosin's office:

In the State Duma he occupies one office along with Murad Zaprishiev, a
former deputy and now an employee of the staff of the duma Committee
for Relations with Public Associations and Religious Organizations. In
a prominent place in the office there is the Koran and the walls are
decorated with Arabic inscriptions. In this office Polosin and his
colleague sometimes perform their prayers, for which they use a special
rug. At the same time, Viacheslav Sergeevich opposes making a
demonstrative profession of Islam in his secular work and especially in
governmental service.

Do you have plans to return to a more political life?

For the time being, no. I would prefer to use my profession and
knowledge for socially useful activity within the bounds of Islam. I
see myself as a public and academic Islamic leader, but not a
politician. But what the future will bring, only God knows. In 1990 my
election as a deputy also was unexpected.

Information:

Viacheslav Sergeevich Polosin was born in 1956. In 1979 he graduated
from the Philosophy Faculty of MGU and in 1984 from the Moscow
Ecclesiastical Seminary. He was ordained a priest and served in
parishes in the dioceses of Central Asia and Kaluga of RPTs.

In 1990 he was elevated to the rank of archpriest. In the same year he
was elected a people's deputy of RSFSR from Kaluga region and headed
the committee of the Supreme Soviet on freedom of conscience. While
working in the Supreme Soviet, he graduated from the diplomatic academy
of the ministry of foreign affairs and defended his dissertation on the
subject: "The Russian Orthodox church and the state in USSR,
1971-1991."
Post by Islam is LOSING!
From 1993 he has been an employee of the staff of the State Duma on
relations with public associations and religious organizations. He was
a member of the Russian Christian Democratic Movement and a member of
the Council of Christian Organizations. In 1991 he went on leave from
the Kaluga diocese and since 1995 he has not officiated in liturgies.

In his interview with the Musulmane journal, he officially called
himself a Muslim: "I consider that the Koran is the final Revelation on
earth, sent down to the Prophet Muhammad. There is no god but the One
God, Allah, and Muhammad is His Messenger."

Viacheslav Polosin is the author of many scholarly works on historical,
political, religious, and philosophical subjects. In February of this
year he defended another dissertation on the subject: "The dialectics
of myth and political myth-making." His basic philosophical ideas are
presented in his book "Myth, Religion, and the State" (Moscow, 1999).
Post by Islam is LOSING!
From the point of view of Islamic theologians, to convert to the
religion of the Prophet it is sufficient to recite the famous formula
containing the profession of faith in the one God Allah and his prophet
Muhammad. In doing so it is not important which language is used for
reciting the formula. It is important that the recitation be made
before two witnesses who are Muslim and can give written confirmation
of the fact of the profession of Islam. (Note - this is not true. Once
could be in the desert and make shahadah and it would be accepted.)

http://www.islamweb.net/ver2/archive/readArt.php?lang=E&id=11901

More articles:
http://www.islamweb.net/ver2/archive/readArt.php?lang=E&id=26088
Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
2005-09-10 23:21:32 UTC
Permalink
3 Muslims arrested in Cambodia on terrorism charges

PHNOM PENH, Cambodia (AP) — Authorities in Cambodia said Wednesday that
they closed a Saudi-funded religious school and arrested three
foreigners with links to the terror group suspected in deadly bombings
on the resort island of Bali.

The arrests, prompted by a tip from U.S. officials, came about two weeks
before Secretary of State Colin Powell is to attend a meeting of
Asian-Pacific Cabinet ministers in Cambodia.

Police arrested a man from Egypt and two others from Thailand on
terrorism charges Sunday. It was a rare sign of militancy among
Cambodia's small Muslim minority.

Officials said the men have links to Jemaah Islamiyah, an extremist
group with ties to al-Qaeda that seeks to establish an Islamic state
across Southeast Asia and is suspected in the Oct. 12 bombings in Bali
that killed 202 people.

"This operation has foiled any attempts of terrorist activity" in
Cambodia, said Om Yentieng, a senior adviser to Prime Minister Hun Sen.
Investigators established that the suspects had links "with terrorism
activities overseas," he said, without giving details.

The authorities closed the Islamic school, 15 miles north of Phnom Penh,
and ordered the deportation within 72 hours of its 28 teachers and their
22 dependents, who are from Nigeria, Pakistan, Sudan, Thailand, Yemen
and Egypt.

. . .

http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2003-05-28-cambodia-arrests_x.htm
Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
2005-09-10 23:24:56 UTC
Permalink
27 Muslims arrested with human trafficking

Narinjara News , 02.03.2005 16:27

27 Muslims were arrested by Akyab police, along with a trafficking gang,
while they were preparing to depart to Malaysia by motor boat, said a
police report.

. . .

http://burma.indymedia.org/ar/2005/03/78.shtml
LeNoir
2005-09-10 23:04:32 UTC
Permalink
Post by Islam is LOSING!
Islam is weakening and cracks are everywhere evident.
....
Post by Islam is LOSING!
The poll results are GOOD NEWS for the BUSH ADMINISTRATION, which has
faced difficulties seeing gains in its two top foreign policy goals --
combating terrorism and promoting democracy in the Islamic world.
LIFE IS GOOD FOR MUSLIM WOMEN


Maureen McCormick, Calgary Herald, 8/10/05


http://www.canada.com/calgary/calgaryherald/news/theeditorialpage/story.html?id=6c1a5632-a376-4ac3-b9b8-3e56b4e8ed91

When I was a non-Muslim, I, too, believed that Islam was misogynistic,
male-dominated and backwards. Imagine my surprise after I read the Qur'an
and learned Islam is diametrically opposed to misogyny and male dominance,
and, in fact, is a very progressive and gentle faith which protects women.

I have seen a lot of controversy over the last few weeks about the
application of sharia law to resolving family disputes between willing
individuals in Canada. The subject has led to a discussion of the status of
women in Islam.

As a Canadian caucasian woman who recently accepted the Islamic faith, I
would like to share my thoughts.

There is good and bad everywhere and it is important to stress that not
every Muslim follows true sharia. Humans are not infallible.

First and foremost, Islam gives a woman more legal rights than she is
afforded using Canadian law -- the right to keep all of her property, even
in a divorce; the right to keep her own money; even the right to be sexually
satisfied, among many other things. Non-Muslim women don't have those
rights; they are just expected to suck it up.

The concept of a dowry might seem odd in Canada, but it has its merits. Many
divorced women in Canada live below the poverty line because their
ex-husbands are unwilling to support them. They pay the least amount of
alimony possible and transfer their assets to their new wives so that the
ex-wife gets nothing.

There are not many divorced women who live at the same standard they had
while married unless they are professional women. To me, a dowry is like an
insurance policy -- the just-in-case part of marriage.

(I thought the concept of men being able to have multiple wives was also a
way for women to be kept safe and protected if their husbands died or they
could not otherwise marry. I'm not sure whether that is as relevant today;
most men don't have enough money to support more than one wife and family.
Moreover, the Qur'an stipulates that what one wife gets, the others must
also be provided with).

Islam gives women more respect than any other faith. My experiences have
shown me (for the most part) that Muslim men really respect women and like
them for who they are. In my opinion, nothing is sexier than a woman who is
covered up. No woman with any amount of self-respect would walk around
looking like she is soliciting sex. Too many people have no respect for each
other at all. It's very sad to see.

Refraining from sex before marriage affords the woman the right to know a
man first and give the man her mind, heart and soul before she decides to
give her body (which is completely backwards to the thinking here, where a
woman has to "put out" in order to get another date).

The woman is never compromised or coerced in any way in Islam. She is always
in control of her body and is always provided a safe environment. What a
concept.

Women are protected in Islam. Men are responsible for the safety,
protection, financial support and well-being of their wives and families.
Perhaps an old-fashioned concept, but it works. Real women want to be with
real men. Moreover, Islam allows for women to be emancipated and
independent.

Islam is easy and fair for both sexes. It is a faith between an individual
and God. In its story about Adam and Eve, Islam did not mention that Eve
encouraged Adam to eat the forbidden fruit. The original sin concept led to
the downgrading of women in the early Christian culture. Islam actually
treats love-making with ease and Muslims expect to be rewarded for making
love to their lawful spouses.

Muslim women can do anything that any other woman in the world can do,
cultural limitations notwithstanding. The only difference is good Muslim
women still have their honour and respect their husbands.

Generally speaking, my experience has been that Muslim women have more
self-respect and confidence than non-Muslim women because Muslim women know
what really counts.
Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
2005-09-10 23:27:32 UTC
Permalink
Three Burmese Muslims held by Bangladeshi Chittagong police force


Narinjara News
9/8/2005

Three Burmese Muslims were detained by police on Saturday 3rd September
in Chittagong-a port city of Bangladesh.

. . .

http://www.narinjara.com/details.asp?id=215
LeNoir
2005-09-10 23:06:48 UTC
Permalink
400 Belgians converted to Islam in 2004
7/27/2005 5:00:00 PM GMT

http://www.islamonline.com/cgi-bin/news_service/world_full_story.asp?service_id=1656




Source: Expatica

Islam is becoming an increasingly popular religion in Belgium with
some 400 Belgians converting to the Islamic faith in 2004, three-quarters of
whom were women.

According to the Islamic Centre in Brussels, the public's interest in
Islam has increased since the 11 September attacks in the U.S.

In 2003 a total number of 300 people converted to the Islamic faith.

"People are discovering that we are different from the picture that
the media has portrayed," Islamic Centre spokesman Abdel Kadet said.

However, the centre was unable to explain why the vast majority of
Belgian converts last year were women.
Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
2005-09-10 23:30:03 UTC
Permalink
10 Muslims arrested in AP on ISI charges

By Ibrahim Usmani

Hyderabad: Police here on 29 August arrested ten Muslims on charges of
being ‘Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT)’ agents planning to blow up Ganesh Temple
in Secunderabad along with attacks on Americans and Jews. Those who were
arrested were identified as Aijaz, Qadeer, Fareed, Munawwar, Rasheed,
Hameeduddin, Maulana Naseeruddin, Jawed, Farooq and Aslam. Seven others
are absconding.

. . .

<<http://www.milligazette.com/Archives/2004/16-30Sep04-Print-Edition/163109200424.htm>>
Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
2005-09-10 23:31:36 UTC
Permalink
Hundreds of Muslims arrested in India on anniversary of Babri mosque
demolition

Pakistan Times Wire Service

ISLAMABAD: In India, hundreds of volunteers of Muslim organizations,
including Tamil Nadu Muslim Munnetra Kazhagam (TMMK) were taken into
custody by the police on the anniversary of Babri Mosque demolition.

The Muslims were prepared to hold protest demonstrations on the
anniversary of Babri Mosque demolition, Press Trust of India reported.

. . .

http://pakistantimes.net/2004/12/06/top15.htm
LeNoir
2005-09-10 23:08:36 UTC
Permalink
Putting their faith in Islam

Around 30,000 women in Switzerland have converted to Islam, according
to a recent report by an organisation for Muslim women.

In an interview with swissinfo, Monica Nur Sammour-Wüst, one of those
to have made the switch, speaks about her beliefs and her life as a
Muslim in Switzerland.

Although raised as a Protestant, 35-year-old Nur Sammour-Wüst feels
she has always been a Muslim.

She converted to Islam over a decade ago and looks back to an event in
Sunday school as a harbinger of the change that was to come.

"The teacher told us that God sees and hears everything, but that he
sent his son Jesus as an intermediary to the world," she recalls.

"I went home and told my mother that if God sees and hears
everything, I don't need a mediator."

"Now, as a Muslim, if I pray for help, I pray directly," says Nur
Sammour-Wüst. "Direct communication with God is a basic tenet of
Islam."

Fear of death

In 1991, at the age of 22, she met and married her first husband, a
Lebanese.

"During that time I was always asking myself questions, especially
about death. I didn't find the answers I sought in Christianity -
there, death is a taboo subject."

Her husband, on the other hand, who had lived through war, did not
understand the Western fear of death - although, like her, he was
only 22.

"For him, everything was clear, because in Islam death is clearly
defined," she says.

"I started to learn more about Islam, and at one point suddenly I
knew. I already believed in God, in the prophets, in the angels, in
predestination, in resurrection. I was already Muslim, I just had never
realised it. In 1992 I officially converted."

After her first husband died in a car accident, Nur Sammour-Wüst
remarried - again to a Lebanese. But after six years they divorced.

Muslim family

Now a single mother, she is raising her son and two daughters as
Muslims.

"I am responsible for them - also religiously - until they are 18
years old," she says. "At home we live and practise Islam, and the
children accept it. I think it's normal for them."

And should one of her children no longer want anything to do with
Islam?

"My most fervent wish to God is that this does not happen. It would
be awful for me, because to me Islam is a way of life. It is not like a
shirt that you simply change."

Still, she feels religion and belief cannot be forced on anyone. "If,
in the worst case, a child no longer wants anything to do with Islam,
then upon reaching adulthood he or she must take responsibility for
that decision."

No exception

A common preconception is that Muslim women sit at home and are not
allowed to go out in public. Nur Sammour-Wüst, who leads an active
life, denies she is an exception because she is Swiss.

"In the time of the prophet Mohammed, 1,400 years ago, women were
politically and intellectually active. The notion of house-bound women
tied to the stove is patriarchal, not religious."

According to Nur Sammour-Wüst, Muslim women in Switzerland often
complain that they face more problems than their Swiss counterparts who
have converted to Islam.

She puts much of this down to a failure to learn the language.

"They absolutely have to learn German," she says. "The prophet
Mohammed also said that when you live somewhere, learn the language
that the people speak so you can communicate."

"In my view, if Muslim women live in Switzerland, they should be able
to speak the language. If they learn German, constructive discussions
can take place."

swissinfo, Jean-Michel Berthoud

http://www.meknes-net.com/actualites/imprimer.php?id=3395
Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
2005-09-10 23:35:03 UTC
Permalink
Kaladan News

Dated: Monday August 11, 2003

Five Muslims Arrested in Myawaddi Town

Myawaddi, August 11: A combined operation cell consisting of Military
Intelligence (MI), Nasaka (Border Security Force) and USDA members
arrested five Muslim youths in Mya waddi town of Karen State, a border
town of Thai- Burma, on August 8, 2003, according to Muslim Agency for
News.

The arrested persons are Sidique, 31, of Insein town, Amin, 26, of
SanginGgyunt town, Solaiman, 34, of Moulmein, Junite, 39, of Taunggyi
and Aras, 20, of Mandalay, source further said.

The combined operation cell members are U Aung Gyi, a leader of USDA,
Captain Lwin Oo Muint of MI and Major Than Zin of Nasaka.

The arrested persons are unskilled workers who worked in farms of Mae
Sot, a border town of Thailand, since long time. Recently, the
harassments of Thai Government increased towards Burmese migrant workers
and became the scarcity of works day by day. Regarding this, they felt
that there would be no security for them in future. So, they decided to
return to their motherland. While they were on way back to their home,
the said combined operation cell in Myawaddi town arrested them.

While they were arrested, they have Kyat 250,000/- and one Tical(15.87
gm) of gold. The victims offered to the authority this cash and gold for
their release but, they refused to accept it. The authority demanded at
least Kyat 200,000/- per head, but the victims could not afford to
fulfill their demand.

Two days later of their arrest, they have been sent to the Moulmein Jail
after filing cases with the Moulmein police station against them.
According to a defense lawyer of victims from Moulmein town, all the
victims were accused in cases of border cross. ##

. . .

http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/KP2003-08-11.htm
LeNoir
2005-09-10 23:10:51 UTC
Permalink
15 Ukrainian Youth Embrace Islam

KIEV, July 20, 2005 (IslamOnline.net) - Fifteen Ukrainian youth embraced
Islam, highlighting the spread of the faith in the former Soviet republic,
with the efforts of the Islamic bodies in the country achieving tangible
results.

The Ukrainian youth reverted to Islam at the Islamic center in the eastern
Ukrainian city of Kharkiv -- a body affiliated to the Federation of Social
Organizations (Arraid) -- the largest Islamic group in the country.

The center was opened less than two months ago and the 15 youth, seven males
and eight females, frequently visited it and were informed about the faith
through efforts of its workers.

"Since the opening of the Islamic center in Kharkiv in June 2005, many
Ukrainians have been visiting the center to get knowledge of the Islamic
teachings and civilization," the Arraid said in a statement e-mailed to
IslamOnline.net Tuesday, July 19.

"In almost a month and half, such efforts resulted in convincing fifteen
youth to embrace Islam," it added.
The federation groups 10 Islamic organizations and three Islamic centers in
10 Ukrainian cities.

Change

Vitalie, a student at the Faculty of Economics, is one of the Ukrainian
youth who adopted Islam as their new faith.
He frequently visited the library of the Islamic center to look for a faith
that satisfies his religious needs.

One day, while reading a book about Islamic supplications, Vitalie was
approached by a Muslim preacher at the center who asked him about the book
he was reading.

"It is a wonderful book that makes you watch God in every move and action
you do," Vitalie answered.
When asked about his faith, the Ukrainian young man said he has been looking
for a religion that convinces him to embrace.

"But now, I feel I have found the religion that I can feel assured to
accept."

After a discussion with the Muslim preacher on issues such as the Power of
Allah, nature of Christ and Islam's stance on the family, neighbors and
society, Vitalie pronounced the Shahadah (the testimony of faith).

"Since he pronounced there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is the messenger
of Allah, Vitalie has been very happy and has been frequently visiting the
Islamic center."

Asked about his future steps, Vitalie said he would first learn the pillars
of Islam.

"Then I will try to convince my acquaintance, my parents, brother, friends
and university teachers to embrace Islam."

There are two million Muslims in Ukraine, making up 4% of the overall
48-million population.

http://islamonline.net/English/News/2005-07/20/article01.shtml
Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
2005-09-10 23:39:04 UTC
Permalink
Former S. Side mosque official pleads guilty to meth charges

September 4, 2005

BY NATASHA KORECKI Federal Courts Reporter

The onetime treasurer of a Chicago mosque with ties to two people
accused of funding terrorism admitted he delivered drugs to an
undercover federal agent.

Tariq Isa, 57, of Cicero pleaded guilty Friday to conspiracy to
distribute and attempted distribution of pseudoephedrine, knowing it was
intended to be used to make methamphetamine.

Isa is the third member of the Al Qassam Mosque, also known as the
Chicago Islamic Center, on the South Side, to face federal charges. Two
other former mosque officers -- Hatem Fariz and Ghassan Zayed Ballut --
are on trial in Tampa, Fla., along with two others on charges of raising
money for Islamic Jihad. The U.S. considers Islamic Jihad a terrorist
group, saying it is responsible for deaths in Israel, the West Bank and
the Gaza Strip.

Facing 21 years in prison

Isa was scheduled to act as a character witness at trial for Fariz and
Ballut.

Isa, who was the former director for youth counseling and community
service at Al Qassam, admitted he handed a government informant $66,780
in cash as partial payment for nearly 1.73 million pseudoephedrine
tablets.

The case, prosecuted by Assistant U.S. Attorneys Lisa Noller and Joseph
Ferguson, was set for trial next week. Ferguson said Isa faces from
171/2 years to more than 21 years in prison.


http://www.suntimes.com/output/news/cst-nws-meth04.html
LeNoir
2005-09-10 23:36:48 UTC
Permalink
Islam in China

By Yusuf Abdul Rahman

[The Ancient Record of the Tang Dynasty describes a landmark visit to China
by Saad ibn Abi Waqqas (ra), one of the companions of Prophet Muhammad (s)
in 650 C.E. This event is considered to be the birth of Islam in China. The
Chinese emperor Yung-Wei respected the teachings of Islam and considered it
to be compatible with the teachings of Confucius. To show his admiration for
Islam, the emperor approved the establishment of China's first mosque at
Ch'ang-an. That mosque still stands today after fourteen centuries.

Muslims virtually dominated the import/export business in China during Sung
Dynasty (960 - 1279 CE). The office of Director General of Shipping was
consistently held by a Muslim during this period. During the Ming Dynasty
(1368 - 1644 CE), a period considered to be the golden age of Islam in
China, Muslims fully integrated into Han society by adopting their name and
some customs while retaining their Islamic mode of dress and dietary
restrictions.

Anti-Muslim sentiments took root in China during the Ch'ing Dynasty (1644 -
1911 CE), which was established by Manchus who were a minority in China.
Muslims in China number more than 35 million, according to unofficial
counts. They represent ten distinct ethnic groups. The largest are the
Chinese Hui, who comprise over half of China's Muslim population. The
largest of Turkic groups are the Uygurs who are most populous in the
province of Xinjiang, where they were once an overwhelming majority.]

Although it may come as some surprise, Islam has survived in China for over
1300 [1400] years. It has done so despite such upheavals as the Cultural
Revolution as well as regimes hostile to it.

Even though there are only sparse records of the event in Arab history, a
brief one in Chinese history, The Ancient Record of the Tang Dynasty
describes a landmark visit to China by an emissary from Arabia in the
seventh century. Saad ibn Abi Waqqas (ra), one of the companions of Prophet
[Muhammad (s)], led the delegation [in 650 C.E.], which brought gifts as
well as the belief system of Islam to China. According to the traditions of
Chinese Muslims, this event is considered to be the birth of Islam in China.

http://members.tripod.com/worldupdates/islamintheworld/id3.htm
Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
2005-09-11 00:19:10 UTC
Permalink
Muslim Criminals: Largest Body of Converts in U.S.

Padilla converted to Islam while in jail. He therefore belongs to the
largest body of converts in the United States. According to National
Association of Muslim Chaplains, between 10 and 20 percent of the 1.5
million criminals in American penitentiaries identify themselves as
Muslim.

Most are black men, some Hispanic. More than 30,000 blacks embrace this
faith behind bars every year.

Wohlrab-Sahr, who teaches at the University of Leipzig and has spent a
research year at Berkeley, has labeled one group of converts "symbolic
emigrants." These are people who feel stigmatized or alienated by their
own culture, she explained in a telephone interview.

"They emigrate culturally, often without leaving their country," she
continued. Thus from the perspective of Islam, they would be religious
immigrants. If this applies to al Muhajir, his al-Qaeda nickname would
indeed be appropriate.

Perhaps John Walker Lindh, the "American Taliban" raised in upper-crust,
liberal Marin County, Calif., could be classified that way too, although
the Leipzig professor entered the caveat that she would have to study
both cases before making an assessment.

http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/6/14/164318.shtml
LeNoir
2005-09-11 00:38:41 UTC
Permalink
STATE DEPARTMENT OFFICIAL THANKS NORTH AMERICAN MUSLIMS FOR HURRICANE FUND

Amina El-Bishlawy, State Department News, 9/6/05
http://usinfo.state.gov/usinfo/products/washfile.html

WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of State's International Information
Programs issued the following press release:

U.S. Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy Karen Hughes has
expressed the appreciation of the Bush administration for the demonstration
of support for victims of Hurricane Katrina by the Islamic Society of North
America (ISNA).

"All people join me in saying that our hearts and prayers are with the
people of Louisiana," Hughes said at a press conference September 2 to kick
off ISNA's 42nd annual convention taking place in Chicago until September 5.

Hughes thanked ISNA for starting a special fund to help the victims of
hurricane Katrina and making an initial donation of $20,000 from its own
resources. After September 2 Friday prayers, ISNA announced that it had
collected $2 million, with additional contributions expected.

"Muslim Americans must come forward and assist their fellow Americans in
this time of need," said Sayyid M. Syeed, secretary general of ISNA.

ISNA called on mosques and congregations across North America to devote
their sermons to the importance of helping the needy and to help raise funds
during Friday prayers throughout the country.

The more than 30,000 Muslims attending this year's ISNA convention also said
a special Islamic prayer - Salat el Gha'eb, or prayer for the absent - for
Katrina's victims following the weekly Friday prayer.

Describing her meeting with Muslim leaders September 1, Hughes said that it
was "a fascinating experience," which helped her to understand more about a
number of things, from language, to public diplomacy outreach, to policy
issues in "a very open and honest way."
Shine that over here
2005-09-11 02:36:54 UTC
Permalink
Post by LeNoir
Islam in China
Many eyebrows would be raised when we talk of a Muslim Jihad against China.
When did that happen, we never hear about Muslim rule in China. Yes there
was a Muslim invasion of China. As there was of Persia, India, Byzantium,
Spain, Balkans, etc. None of these countries had ever attacked a Muslim
nation to bring about a retaliatory Muslim invasion. They has all been
invaded by Muslims to compel the inhabitants to embrace Islam. The
Dawat-ul-Islam (Invitation to embrace Islam) was sent out to the king of the
neighboring country, and if they did not submit to one of the two conditions
viz: “Embrace Islam or Pay the Jaziya or face a Muslim invasion,, then they
had to face a Muslim jihadi onslaught. China was one of those counties who
had been sent an invitation by the founder of Islam himself
Mohammed-ibn-Abadullah to embrace Islam. This invitation had also been sent
to three other kings of Zoroastrian Persia, of Christian Byzantine and to a
king of Hindu Kerala in India. The Chinese emperor did not quite understand
the meaning of the ultimatum and thought that these were messengers from a
far away land bringing a spiritual message. The Chinese had to come face to
face with the real danger of Islam a century later when in the year 751,
they had to march to the borders of their empire in Eastern China to check
an Arab invasion launched from Persia.

For much of the early 700s, the Chinese Empire, under the T'ang dynasty, was
successful in its foreign affairs. They recovered crucial lands they had
previously lost and stabilized the Tibetan frontier. They secured trade
routes through central Asia and contained threats from the Khitan and Hsi
peoples. In the late 740s, Chinese troops claimed lordship over Kabul and
Kashmir of India. But their string of victorious campaigns could not last
forever, as China discovered at Talas River in 751.

Islam's widespread aggression through Persia and Central Asia came into
collusion with China's Westward expansion into Central Asia. This led to the
meeting of the two expansionist powers in Central Asia which finally erupted
into pen warfare at the Battle at Talas River, the only battle between Arab
Muslim forces and the army of the Chinese Empire. The Chinese troops were
led by Kao Hsien-chih, who had been successful in battles in Gilgit and in
the Farghana region. The Muslims were led by Ziyad ibn Salih, who was deputy
to Abu Muslim (a Persian convert to Islam), with a band of 40,000 Ghazis
(warriors crazed by Islam’s promise of wealth, women or martyrdom in heaven
where the ghazis would be served by the many houris that the Terrorist
Manifesto – the Quran). These Ghazis came to China to wage a Jihad on the
Chinese. When the Arab army marched from the south towards Talas. River, the
Chinese general Kao (of Korean origin), decided to resist the Muslim
invasion and marched towards Aulie-Ata on the Talas river with 100,000
Chinese troops in cavalry and infantry divisions.

In the Battle of the Talas river, the Qarluq Betrayal led to the defeat of
the Chinese at Arab hands

On July 10th 751 AD the Arab and Chinese armies took to the field in
Aulie-Ata on the backs of the Talas river. The Chinese cavalry seemed to
initially overwhelm the Arab cavalry, but the Arabs had worked out a deal
with one of the many Turkish contingents of the Chinese army viz., the
Qarluq Turks, by promising them wealth and freedom in return for embracing
Islam and betraying their Chinese masters. The Qarluqs who held a grudge
against the Chinese for having reduced them to vassalage, viewed this as an
opportunity to throw off the Chinese yoke by using the Arabs and had planned
to later throwing off the Arab yoke as well and regaining their freedom from
both the Chinese and the Arabs. The Qarluqs later played the main role in
converting other Turkish tribes notably the Seljuks to Islam.

At the Battle of the Talas river, the Qarluqs betrayed their own people the
Chinese and went over to the Arabs

At the battle of the Talas river where the Arab and the Chinese armies
clashed, the Qarluqs who were a part of the Chinese army, opened a breach in
their own ranks and allowed the Arabs to ford the river and helped them to
encircle a part of the Chinese infantry butchering it to man. The Qarluq
archers then surrounded their paymaster the general of the Chinese army Kao
and shot him down. Now the Arabs followed their heinous practice of sticking
the d\severe head of an enemy and parading it before the enemy army. The
Chinese not being used to such grisly war tactics, fell into confusion and
disarray, not knowing who had betrayed them, and their General Kao. They
broke ranks and fell into confusion, shaking the Chinese center, which was
rapidly assaulted by the Arab heavy cavalry and destroyed. Thus due to
Muslim subterfuge and savagery the infallible Chinese war machine gave way
under combined assault of the Arabs and the traitor Qarluqs, and they faced
a heavy rout. From behind the treacherous Qarluqs fell upon the Chinese
animals, baggage trains and supplies carrying away all they could and
receded back into the steppe.

The Arabs rounded up tens of thousands of Chinese and their non-Qarluq Turk
allies and took them to Samarqand from where Abu Muslim sent them to Baghdad
and Damascus to be sold as slaves, each worth a dirham. One Chinese survivor
mentions being kept as cattle in the Arab prison camps. Abu Muslim and Ziyad
made huge financial gains out of this slave trade and used it to pay their
armies. More importantly the Arabs forced the Turk and Chinese prisoners to
teach them the art of making siege trains and catapult machines, which the
Islamized Turks were to use successfully in their attacks on the Byzantine
cities.

The Qarluq Turks aimed at playing the Chinese and the Muslims against each
other to gain their own independence

The Qarluq Turks wanted independence from the Chinese so they made a
pretence of embracing Islam to obtain Arab support to defeat the Chinese.
The Qarluqs had planned to later throw off the Arab yoke as well by
repudiating Islam and regaining their freedom from both the Chinese and the
Arabs. But little did the Qarluqs realize that in working out a deal with
the Arabs, while they would succeed in throwing off the Chinese yoke, they
would have to bring themselves into the fold of Islam, from which there was
no escape. The Qarluqs were forced to remain Muslim and whenever any of them
reneged their Islamic faith, they were put to death while the luckier among
them were enslaved by the Arabs and Persian Muslims.

The later history of the Qarluqs was as Muslims who resigned themselves to
remaining as satellites of the Arabs after having thrown off the Chinese
yoke and with it also the only possibility of liberating themselves from the
grip of Islam. It was this devious conversion of the Quarluqs that was
actually a pretense to throw off the Chinese yoke on the Turks, that led to
the conversion of the greater Turkish nation to Islam in the next three
centuries from 750 to 1050.

The Turks who had retained aggressively their freedom from their neighbors
the Chinese, and the Zoroastrian Persians for more than a millennium,
finally began succumbing to Islam due to a tactical pretense of the Qarluqs,
one of their important clans to pretend to embrace Islam for securing Arabs
support and throwing off Chinese suzerainty. A deal that proved costly for
Turkish independence that was now permanently enslaved into the prison of
Islam.


The fallout of the Battle of the Talas river

While the battle in itself was of minor importance, its ramifications on the
future were very significant. The Arabs lost out on an opportunity to extend
their Islamic influence throughout China and make China a Muslim country. On
the other hand the T'ang (in China) lost a good amount of power and their
westward advance was halted. But the Muslim success at the Talas river did
not carry over, although the Muslim armies were victorious. But the more
significant fallout was the arousal of the Turko-Mongols against the
Muslims. The gradual bitterness that was planted among the Mongoloid peoples
(Turks, Mongols and Chinese), since the fist Muslim attacks on Turkish lands
from the middle of the seventh century, and which were taken to the border
of China proper in 751 at the Battle of the Talas river, provoked a violent
backlash of the Mongols against the Muslims. After the victory at the Talas
river, the Muslims faced increasing resistance from the Chinese and their
Turko-Mongol allies. So the Muslims decided to concentrate on consolidating
their position in Central Asia and converting the Turks to Islam. Hence they
postponed their eastward invasion into China proper. This decision of the
Arabs in 751, was to save China from Islam, as in the following centuries,
they Mongol who belonged to the wider Chinese (Mongoloid) nation gathered
sufficient strength to launch a counter attack against the Muslims from 1200
onwards that culminated in the sack and destruction of Baghdad, by Hulagu
Khan, the leader of the Mongols.

But the Muslim victory on the Talas river had its fallout in the conversion
of the Chinese border population to Islam, the Qarluq Turks were followed by
the Ughirs and the Hui Chinese (an branch of the Han Chinese) into accepting
the faith imposed on them by the Arabs. The Chinese who converted to Islam
gradually gave up their rich Chinese heritage and became Arabized, although
they continued to look Mongoloid like the Chinese. Today the descendants of
the Hui, Ughirs, and Qarluq populate the Westernmost Chinese province of
Xinjiang and are agitating for a separate Islamic state called Eastern
Turkestan. Many of them are sympathetic to the Al Qaeda and their attempts
to secede from China have been so far successfully resisted by the Chinese.
LeNoir
2005-09-10 23:37:04 UTC
Permalink
Islam in Malaysia

by Hj. Ahmad Kamar

The recognition of Islam in this part of the world has been a fact since
C.E. 674 (forty-two years after the death of Prophet Muhammad, pbuh) when
the Umayyad ruler Muawiyah was in power at Damascus. Two hundred years later
in C.E. 878 Islam was embraced by people along the coast of Peninsular
Malaysia including the port of Kelang which was a well-known trading centre.

Before the coming of Islam, the indigenous Malays embraced an ancient
religion with various forms of belief with some of the population belonging
to the Hindu/Buddha religion. Life was structured and arranged in ways that
showed the influence of more than one religion. This can be seen not only in
the Malay's cultural patterns but is also part of the 'power' structure of
state dignitaries and princes.

At the political level, the royal ruler and the head of state in most
communities in the Malay world embraced the Islamic religion. The people
were impressed and attracted by the provision in the Qur'an and the Hadith
that mankind should be ranked on a basis of interpersonal equality. Those
who for so long had been considered of low caste saw how the different
strata of Islamic society were laid before them. They were no longer
imprisoned within a religious caste system and the notion of living in
"classes". In Islam there was no discrimination, or division on the basis of
colour, class tribal affiliation, race, homeland and birthplace, all of
which gave rise to problems. Equal rights seemed the right human solution,
which in practice meant the acceptance of rights and obligation as a member
of the Islamic Community. The pious person achieved sublimity and nearness
to God.

The local population saw that Islam could extricate them from this bondage
and provide the means for the extirpation of social evils. The new religion
gave the small man a sense of this individual worth - the dignity of man -
as a member of an Islamic community.

The efforts of the ulama' in implementing Islamic teachings gradually
reached rulers, officials, community leaders and the ordinary people. Their
efforts left its mark in such places as Banten (formerly Bantam), East Java,
Macassar, Kalimantan, the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand, Malacca,
Trengganu and elsewhere. The ulama' also played a part in the
administration, and some of the powerful sultans held firmly to the
teachings of Islam.

Continue:
http://members.tripod.com/worldupdates/islamintheworld/id20.htm
Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
2005-09-11 00:25:00 UTC
Permalink
Ahmed Hassan Al-Uqaily
Randall "Ismail" Royer
Sami Al-Arian
Ghassan Elashi
Nuradin Abdi
José Padilla
Bassem K. Khafagi
Zacarias Moussaoui
Sami Ibrahim Isa Ardel Hadi
Abdurahman Alamoudi
Karim Iraq
Ahmed Omar Abu Ali
Ahmed Barodi
Sadeq Naji Ahmed
Mukhtar al-Bakri
Princess Buniah al-Saud
John Muhammad
Bashir Noorzai
Faysal Galab
Bayan Elashi
Ali al-Timimi
Shafal Mosed
Ibrahim Al-Niqrish
Sahim Alwan
Fawaz Damra
Ihsan Elashyi
Yahya Goba
Ahmed Ressam
Yasein Taher
Ali bin Mussalim
Hasan Akbar
Basman Elashi
Nemr Ali Rahal
Hazim Elashi
Clayton Morgan, aka Isamu Dyson, aka Cayson Bin Don
Tarik ibn Osman Shah
Rafiq Sabir


http://www.jihadwatch.org/dhimmiwatch/archives/006463.php
LeNoir
2005-09-11 00:43:09 UTC
Permalink
DC-AREA MOSQUE TO COLLECT DONATIONS HURRICANE VICTIMS

(STERLING, VA, 9/1/05) On Friday, September 2, the All Dulles Muslim Society
(www.adamscenter.org) will have hurricane relief donation collection boxes
at all Jumaa Locations: Main Center, Farifax Branch, Reston Branch, Leesburg
Branch, and Tysons Corner Branch. Please make check payable to ADAMS with
memo: "Hurricane Katrina"

The ADAMS Sisters Youth Groups will also collect Canned Food at the ADAMS
Main Center

ADAMS urges Muslim Americans to donate generously to humanitarian
organizations that are working to meet the needs of the affected people.
ADAMS also urges Muslim Americans to volunteer in any capacity to help bring
relief and comfort to the victims of this disaster.

CONTACT: ADAMS President Rizwan Jaka, E-Mail: ***@yahoo.com
LeNoir
2005-09-10 23:37:21 UTC
Permalink
Islam in the USSR

by A. Kalaam

[There are about 80 million Muslims in what was Soviet Union. In spite of
their number, the outside world seems to know little about them. Of the 16
states that comprised the Soviet Union, Muslims were in majority in eight of
them when the Communists took over in 1917. The Muslim majority areas in
what was the Soviet Union were: 1. Uzbekistan, 2. Tajikistan, 3. Azerbaijan,
4. Georgia and Armenia, 5. Kazakhstan, 6. Kirghizia, 7. Tatar and Bashkar,
8. Caucasia and 9. Cremia.

Islam was introduced in Uzbekistan in the 8th century during the time of the
Umayyad Caliph Abdul Malik bin Marwan. For twelve hundred years, the entire
area remained under Muslim rule. Uzbekistan has produced several renowned
scholars of Hadith and Fiqh, besides leading Muslim philosophers, physicians
and mathematicians. It was also in the early 8th century, the entire
population of Tajikistan embraced Islam, even before the message of Islam
reached Afghanistan. The message of Islam reached Azerbaijan in 14 AH (636
CE), and it became a part of the Islamic world in the year 113 AH during the
period of Umayyad Caliph Hisham bin Abdul Malik.

Muslim merchants introduced Islam to the European Russia in the beginning of
10th century. There are about 10 million Muslims in the Tatar, Bashkar,
Kazan, the Ural and in the Volga river valley.

Continue:
http://islamonline.net/english/introducingislam/tolerance/article02.shtml

More Articles:

The Republic of Uzbekistan
The Republic of Tajikistan
The Republic of Turkmenia
The Republic of Kirghizia
The Republic of Kazakhstan
The Republic of Azerbaijan
Caucasia (Kaukaz)
Georgia and Armenia
Cremia
Muslims in European Russia

http://members.tripod.com/worldupdates/islamintheworld/id21.htm
Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
2005-09-11 00:29:34 UTC
Permalink
Muslim trucker: you can't make me haul beer

In Nashville, Tenn., Ibrahim Barzinji has sued his former employer,
Arkansas-based J.B. Hunt Transport Inc., on the grounds that asking him
to transport alcoholic beverages violated his religious beliefs.
Barzinji, who is representing himself in the case, "said he had just
trucked a load of auto parts from Clarksville to St. Louis on June 26
last year when he was asked to pick up a return load at the
Anheuser-Busch plant." He informed his supervisor that he was refusing
to handle the cargo, and was dismissed. "A local labor and employment
attorney said that, to prove his case, Barzinji would have to convince a
judge or jury that asking to be assigned a different load was reasonable
and would not cause undue hardship on the company." The issue has come
up before in a somewhat different context: "Muslim cab drivers at the
Minneapolis airport several years ago began refusing to pick up
passengers who carried duty-free alcohol, said Ibrahim Hooper, spokesman
for the Council on American-Islamic Relations, a Washington, D.C.-based
advocacy group." (Anita Wadhwani, "Fired Muslim truck driver sues
employer", The Tennessean, Jun. 23).

http://www.overlawyered.com/archives/001231.html
LeNoir
2005-09-11 01:15:43 UTC
Permalink
24-CARAT CABBIE

Jose Martinez, Kansas City Star, 8/05/05
http://www.nydailynews.com/front/story/334707p-285893c.html

He's a gem of a guy.

An honest Brooklyn cab driver Thursday answered the prayers of a Canadian
jewelry dealer by returning a diamond-stuffed suitcase that had been left in
the trunk of his yellow cab.

"It's like a perfect miracle," said Thierry Delisha, 32, of Montreal. "I am
so proud to meet such an honest gentleman."

Hossam Abdala made the sparkling discovery Thursday, hours after dropping
off Delisha and two other men at LaGuardia Airport for a flight to Canada
around 7:15 a.m.

In their haste to unload eight pieces of luggage, the men didn't notice
until it was too late that Abdala had driven off with a suitcase loaded with
hundreds of thousands of dollars in bridal jewelry. . .

One call later to Crown Ring, the company Delisha owns in Montreal, and
Abdala tracked down the grateful diamond dealer, who had stayed in New York
hoping for a miracle.

"The guy's lucky," said Abdala, 30. "Usually, I find cell phones and things
like that, but never very heavy bags filled with diamonds."

Delisha and his partners had been in New York for a jewelry expo at the
Javits Convention Center.

They were on their way to another show in Toronto when they discovered they
might have to show up empty-handed.

"That would have been terrible," Delisha said. "I thought they were gone for
good."

Abdala, whose 12-hour shifts behind the wheel start at 4 a.m., received what
Delisha called a "very nice reward" for his good deed.

"In New York, with so many people, I never would have believed this could
happen," Delisha said. "I found a very good man."

For Abdala, he was relieved he was able to track down Delisha. They reunited
last night at LaGuardia.

"It's the right thing to do," said Abdala, a married father of a 4-year-old
girl who immigrated from Egypt in 1997. "I knew I had to find the owner."

The episode reaffirmed Delisha's belief in the power of prayer.

"I'm Jewish and he's Muslim, so there has to be a message from God in this,"
he said. "I wish there could be more people like him."
Shine that over here
2005-09-11 02:48:32 UTC
Permalink
Post by LeNoir
Islam in the USSR
Russia is one country which has carried a war into the enemy’s home,
destroying the enemy utterly. They burned down Moscow to prevent Napoleon
from taking it. Then they harassed his retreating army. Eventually they
drove the French not just out of Russia, but marched up to Paris to put and
end to Napoleon’s threat. Earlier the Mongols has occupied the whole of
Russia and had subdued the Russian population. But the will of the hardy
Russians was not to be broken. They fought a four hundred war against the
Mongols from the 10th century up to the 14th century and ultimately not just
drove the Mongols out of Russia, but invaded the homelands of the Mongols in
Central Asia, up to the borders of China and made the Mongols a subject
race.

Same happened with the Nazis. They were undefeated till 1942. The Russians
were the first to halt and reverse the triumphal march at Stalingrad. They
pushed the Nazis out of Russia, and back into Germany, till they joined up
with the Anglo-American forces on the Elbe river, making the Nazis history.
The Russians have proved that they are ruthless once aroused.

Russia is one country which can carry the crusade against Jihad into the
Middle East, destroying the enemy utterly.


Today Beslan (the site where hundred of school kids were slaughtered by the
Chechen Jihadi terrorists) is a challenge to the Russian spirit. Russia
needs to awaken its spirit if it is to save itself from further savagery.
Russia can do it, and Russia can do it alone as it did with the Tartars,
with Napoleon and with the Nazis. The Tartars were defeated by Russia
absolutely single-handedly, while in the war with Napoleon and with the
Nazis too, the Western allies came into the picture after Russia had
defeated the invader on Russia's home ground single-handedly. Today also,
Russia needs to take the lead in the war on terror – America and the West
will follow as Waterloo (in 1815) followed Borodino in 1812 and Normandy (in
1944) followed Stalingrad in 1942.

A few years back, the Russians again displayed their ruthlessness against a
beastly enemy when they used gas as a weapon to disable the Chechen (Jihadi)
terrorists along with the eight hundred hostages which they had held at a
theater in Moscow (the Nord-Ost attack). The Russian President Vladimir
Putin along with authorities took a hard hearted decision to use the gas
which disabled the terrorists along with the hostages No price was small to
defeat the terrorists. The West is unnecessarily razing the cost of waging
this war, by being defensive. The costs of Homeland security, airport
security, espionage, rebuilding defeated Jihadi countries like Afghanistan
and Iraq are a drain on the exchequer of the West and making the cost of
this war prohibitively high, while weakening the Western economies. The West
needs to learn from Russia, and strike at the enemy’s jugular, by taking the
war into the enemy territory, while not wasting any effort and resources in
re-building defeated Jihadi countries. The point is to make the cost of
terrorism, so high for its sponsors in the Middle East an in the larger
Muslim world, so that they see sense and stop. And in case they don’t, as
they won’t, then the only option is to bombard them into the stone age.

The forward policy of the Russians of taking the war into enemy territory
was what stopped Islam from spreading further into Europe. The Russian also
waged a four hundred year crusade against Islam. Had it not been for the
Russian resistance from 1676 up to 1918, the whole of Russia would have been
Muslim today. The Russo-Turkish Wars were a series of ten wars fought
between the Russian Empire and the Turkish-ruled Ottoman Empire during the
seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. Their conflict during
World War I may also be counted as a tenth and, so far, the last war in the
series. Such was the indomitable spirit of the Russians that for three
centuries together they did not give up the struggle till they finally
destroyed the Jihadi threat to Russia and to Eastern Europe. Although the
wars are described as Russo-Turkish wars, they were not national wars, but
those of the Christian resistance to a Muslim assault in the name of Islam
and Jihad. A resistance in which Russia as the vanguard of the Christendom,
came out a winner and with flying colors, that made the haughty and cruel
Ottomans scamper back to where they came from and made Turkey from an
invading imperial power into a sick man of Europe.

• The first Russo-Turkish War, 1686-1700

• The second Russo-Turkish War, 1710-13 (part of the Great Northern War)

• The third Russo-Turkish War, 1735-39

• The forth Russo-Turkish War, 1768-74

• The fifth Russo-Turkish War, 1787-92

• The sixth Russo-Turkish War, 1806-12

• The seventh Russo-Turkish War, 1828-29

• The eight Russo-Turkish War, 1853-56 (Crimean War)

• The ninth Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78

• The tenth Russo-Turkish War, 1914-18 (World War I)

The Jihad reached Ukraine with the Ottoman attack on Russia. - In the
seventeenth century, the Turks hyena had begun casting eyes towards the
Russian bear, but the hyena was severely mauled and was lucky to escape
alive

The first Russo-Turkish War of 1676-1681 From 1650 onwards the Turks had
started attacking Austria and Poland. With the Ottoman Jihadis in Poland,
Prussia (Germany) and Russia were under threat of invasion. After having
captured the region of Podolia in the course of the Polish-Turkish War of
1672-1676, the Ottomans tested the Russian preparedness by attacking Ukraine
and bringing under its rule that part of Ukraine that lay on the right-bank
of the Dnieper river. The Ottomans could make an entry into Russia, by
dangling the carrot of independence from Russia before the local chieftain
(Hetman) Petro Doroshenko in 1669, promising to make him the sovereign of
Ukraine. But this treason on his part caused discontent among many Ukrainian
Cossacks, who deposed him and elected Ivan Samoilovich (Hetman of the
Left-bank Ukraine) as a sole Hetman of all Ukraine in 1674.

So we see that it was not Russia that had invaded a Muslim country to start
the long series of wars. But it was a Muslim brigand state (Ottomans) who
started the aggression against Russia in the second half of the 17th
century. In doing this, the Ottoman Turks were following the tradition of
the founder of Islam Mohammed-ibn-Abdallah, of raiding the caravans from
Mecca to start a war This was in fact how the Jihad began to spread Islam as
a coercion on non-Muslims.

Doroshenko, the traitor, decided to conspire against his countrymen and in
1676 his army of 12,000 men seized the Ukrainian city of Chigirin, counting
on the approaching Turkish-Tatar army. However, the Russian and Ukrainian
forces under the command of Samoilovich and Grigory Romodanovsky besieged
Chigirin and made Doroshenko surrender. Leaving a garrison in Chigirin, the
Russian and Ukrainian armies retreated to the left bank of the Dnieper. The
Turkish Sultan appointed Yuri Khmelnitsky Hetman of the Right-bank Ukraine,
who had been the Sultan’s prisoner at that time. In July of 1677, the Sultan
ordered his army (120,000 men) under the command of Ibrahim Pasha to advance
towards Chigirin. But the Russains repulsed this attack.

In July of 1678, am even larger Turkish army (approx. 200,000 men) of the
Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa besieged Chigirin once again. In this battle, the
Russian and Ukrainian armies (120,000 men) broke through the Turkish
covering force, however, the Turks had already managed to occupy Chigirin a
few days before the battle was joined. In this battle, the Turks used the
carrot of Ukrainian independence from Russia to break off some units from
the Russian army. The Ottomans also enlisted support of the Crimean Tatars
who ere Muslim to attack the Russian from the rear. As a result of such
subterfuge, the Russian army was defeated and retreated over the Dnieper,
beating off the pursuing Turkish army.

In 1679-1680, the Russians repelled the attacks of the Crimean Tatars and
signed the Bakhchisaray Peace Treaty on January 3, 1681, which would
establish the Russo-Turkish border by the Dnieper, dividing Ukraine into
half with once half under ottoman rule. Now the Ottomans began to show their
true fangs by starting to tyrannize the local Slavic population and
compelling them to embrace Islam. This was the first turning point, where
the Russians and Ukrainians under Ottoman tyranny left the towns and
villages and became partisan fighters against Ottoman repression. These
efforts were helped by the Russians and the Czar appealed for European help
to eject the Ottomans from Ukraine. This led to the war of Russian
resistance to the Jihad. This is also known as the Russo-Turkish War of
1686—1700.

The Second Russo-Turkish War of 1686—1700, was a part of the joint European
effort to stop the continuing aggression of the Ottoman Empire. This
Russo-Turkish War began after Russia had joined the European anti-Turkish
coalition (comprising Austria, Poland, Venice) in 1686. During the war, the
Russian army organized the campaigns of 1687 and 1689 to liberate Crimea,
and the Azov campaigns of 1695 and 1696. But these campaigns met with
limited success as the Russian attempts to liberate the whole of Ukraine had
to be abandoned in the light of the Swedish invasion of Russia from the
north. Russia had to end this campaign by signing the Treaty of Karlowitz in
1699, which was followed up by the Constantinople Peace Treaty with the
Ottoman Empire in 1700. But in spite of this treaty, the Turks were plotting
to overrun Russia at the first opportunity. This led to the third
Russo-Turkish War of 1710-1713.

The third Russo-Turkish War of 1710-1713, started after the Russians had
defeated the Swedes in the Battle of Poltava. With the help from Austrian
and French diplomats, Charles XII of Sweden managed to persuade the Turkish
Sultan to declare war on Russia on November 20, 1710. The principal event of
this war was the Prut campaign of 1711, in which Russia unsuccessfully
attempted to regain that part of Ukraine occupied by the Turks. Although
this campaign did not succeed, it paved the way for Russia’s final success
against the Turks


The fourth Russo-Turkish War of 1735-1739 reversed the Jihadi advances into
Russia, This war which was an indirect fallout of the endless raids by the
Crimean Tatars finally turned back the tide of the Jihad from Rusia. The war
also represented Russia's continuing struggle for the access to the Black
Sea.

Russian diplomacy before the war

By the outbreak of the Russo-Turkish war, Russia had managed to secure a
favorable international situation by signing a few treaties with Iran in
1732-1735 (which was at war with Turkey in 1730-1736) and supporting the
accession to the Polish throne of Augustus III in 1735 instead of the French
protégé Stanislaw I Leszczynski, nominated by pro-Turkish France. Austria
was Russia's ally since 1726. As the casus belli was the raids of the
Crimean Tatars on Ukraine in the end of 1735 and the Crimean khan's military
campaign in the Caucasus. In 1736, the Russian commanders envisioned the
seizure of Azov and the Crimea.

On May 20, 1736, the Russian Dnieper army (62,000 men) under the command of
the Prussian Field Marshal Burkhard Christoph von Munich took the Turkish
fortifications at Perekop by storm and occupied Bakhchisaray on June 17.
However, lack of supplies coupled with the ourbreak of an epidemic forced
Munnich to retreat to Ukraine. This marked the successful Russian campaign
against the Ottomans in rolling back the Jihad from Russian soil. A campaign
that as to take the Russian armies all over the Balkans up to Greece, to
finally eject the Ottomans from Europe.

Now there were more victories in store for the Russians. On June 19, the
Russian Don army (28,000 men) under the command of General Peter Lacy with
the support from the Don Flotilla under the command of Vice Admiral Peter
Bredahl seized the fortress of Azov. In July of 1737, the Munnich army took
by storm the Turkish fortress of Ochakov. The Lacy army (already 40,000 men
strong) marched into the Crimea the same month, inflicting a number of
defeats on the army of the Crimean khan and capturing Karasubazar. However,
Lacy and his soldiers had to leave the Crimea due to lack of supplies.

In July of 1737, Austria entered the war against Turkey, but was defeated a
number of times. In August, Russia, Austria and Turkey began negotiations in
Nemirov, which would turn out to be fruitless. There were no significant
military operations in 1738. The Russian army had to leave Ochakov and
Kinburn due to the outbreak of plague.

In 1739, Field Marshal Munich’s army crossed the Dnieper, defeated the Turks
at Stavuchany and occupied the fortress of Khotin (August 19) and Jassy.
However, Austria was defeated by the Turks once again and singed a separate
peace treaty with the Ottoman Empire on August 21. This, coupled with the
imminent threat of the Swedish invasion, forced Russia to sign the Belgrade
Peace Treaty with Turkey on September 18, 1739 which ended the war.


The fifth Russo-Turkish War, 1787-92

This war took place in the shadow of upheavals taking place in Western
Europe, like the French Revolution and the beginning of the revolutionary
wars that later turned into the Napoleonic wars. With Austria getting
increasingly entangled on its Western frontier with France, it fell on
Russia’s shoulders to hold the fort against further Ottoman incursions into
Europe. This war saw Russian armies inflict a string of defeat on the Turks,
softening them for the assaults to follow in the next hundred and fifty
years that was to finally drive the Turks from Europe and place Turkey at
the mercy of Russia and other Christian powers of Europe.

The sixth Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812 - final defeat of the Jihadis in
Russia

Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812 was one of the crucial wars fought between
Imperial Russia representing orthodox Christianity and the Ottoman Empire
that stood for the Jihadi assault on Russia and on Europe in general in the
15th to the 18th centuries. This war and subsequent wars took Russians
armies out of Russia proper into Moldavia, Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia,
Greece, Georgia, Armenia and into Turkey proper in their battle against the
Ottoman Jihadis. Although the wars are described as Russo-Turkish wars, they
were not national wars, but those of the Christian resistance to a Muslim
assault in the name of Islam and Jihad.

This war broke out in 1806, when Turkey deposed the Russophile governors of
its vassal states Moldavia and Walachia. Since Russia was reluctant to
concentrate large forces against Turkey while its relations with Napoleonic
France were so uncertain. In 1811, with the prospect of a Franco-Russian war
in sight, Russia sought a quick decision on its southern frontier. The
Russian field marshal M.I. Kutuzov's victorious campaign of 1811-12 forced
the Turks to cede Bessarabia to Russia by the Treaty of Bucharest in May 28,
1812

The seventh Russo-Turkish war of 1828-1829

The Greeks' struggle for independence sparked the Russo-Turkish War of
1828-1829, in which Russian forces advanced into Bulgaria, the Caucasus, and
northeastern Anatolia itself before the Turks sued for peace. The resulting
Treaty of Adrianople (Edirne) in September 14, 1829 gave Russia most of the
eastern shore of the Black Sea and the mouth of the Danube. Turkey
recognized Russian sovereignty over Georgia and parts of present-day
Armenia. Serbia achieved autonomy and Russia was allowed to occupy Moldavia
and Walachia (guaranteeing their prosperity, and full "liberty of trade" for
them) until Turkey had paid a large indemnity.

The eight Russo-Turkish war (the Crimean War)

The Crimean War lasted from 1854 to 1856. It was fought between Russia and
an alliance of the Ottoman Empire with United Kingdom, France. This war
showed that the European powers no longer viewed the Turks as a threat to
Europe, although they were still occupying a part of the Balkans. The
British looked upon Russia as a competitor in their race for colonies in
Asia and wanted to prevent Russia from emerging as a naval power. Had Russia
defeated and crushed the Ottoman empire in this war, Russians navies would
have entered the Mediterranean and eventually countered British efforts to
dominate the Middle East and South Asia. So Britain shrewdly so decided to
ally itself with the eternal foes of Christendom the Muslim Ottoman Turks.
This war is called the Crimean war, since the majority of the conflict took
place around the Crimean peninsula on the Black Sea.

Religions overtones and origins of the Crimean war

After a dispute with the Ottoman Empire over the guardianship of several
holy towns in Palestine and the protection of Orthodox Christians, Russia
invaded Moldavia and Wallachia, both semi-autonomous vassals of the Ottoman
Empire, resulting in a declaration of war by the Ottomans in late 1853. The
Russians, under the command of Admiral Nakhimov, the hero of the Battle of
Navarino, sank the Ottoman fleet at Sinop on November 30. The Ottomans were
joined by Britain and France on March 28, 1854, and by Piedmont-Sardinia
(though her participation was merely token) in January 1855. Austria also
shamefully threatened to enter the war on the Ottoman side, causing the
Russians to withdraw from the occupied areas, which were immediately
occupied by the Austrians, in August 1854.

Siege of Sevastopol

The following month, British and Ottoman troops landed in the Crimea and
besieged the city of Sevastopol, home of the Czar’s Black Sea fleet and a
threat of future Russian penetration into the Mediterranean. The Russians
had to scuttle their ships and used the naval cannons as additional
artillery, and the ships' crews as marines. Admiral Nakhimov was mortally
wounded in the head by a sniper shot, and died on June 30, 1855. The city
was finally captured in September 1855. In the same year, the Russians
occupied the Turkish city of Kars. After the occupation of Sevastopol and
the accession of Alexander II peace negotiations began. The war ended with
the Treaty of Paris (1856).


The Infamous character of the Crimean war

The war became infamously known for the division of the Christendom’s forces
in a battle against the Saracens. While Christian nations of Europe had
battled fiercely amongst themselves all through history, they had not till
the Crimean war, sought to defeat another Christian power by aligning
themselves with a Muslim power. But form the Crimean war onwards till, 9/11,
this opportunistic trend was to continue, with one European power aligning
itself with one Muslim nation and another European power with another Muslim
nation.

With the Crimean war, the Crusade against Jihad was to get overlapped with
national, colonial and imperial considerations, in which the cause for the
war was a narrow nationalistic gain. But this was to be reversed on that
fateful day on 9/11.

The ninth Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in the Russian goal
of gaining access to the Mediterranean Sea and dominating Constantinople
(Istanbul) and the adjacent Turkish Straits. However, due to bad experience
of seeing Christian European powers aligning themselves against Russia and
in favor of the Muslim Turks during the Crimean War, Russian diplomacy
advertised the war as an effort of liberating the Christian Slav and
Hellenic peoples of the Balkan Peninsula of south-eastern Europe from the
Turkish-ruled Ottoman Empire.

An anti-Ottoman uprising occurred in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the summer of
1875. The main reason for this revolt was the heavy tax burden of Jaziya
imposed by the religious fanatic Ottoman administration. Despite some
setbacks, the uprising continued well over the end of 1875 and eventually
triggered the Bulgarian April uprising of 1876. Tension in Bosnia and
Russian support encouraged the principalities of Serbia and Montenegro's
declaration of war against their nominal Ottoman overlord early in July. The
war raised imperial appetite of superpowers Russia (Prince Gorchakov) and
Austria-Hungary (Count Andrássy), who made the secret Reichstadt Agreement
in July 8, on partitioning the Balkan peninsular between themselves
depending on the outcome.

In August 1876, Serb forces were defeated by the Turkish army, which was the
worst-case scenario for Russians and Austrians as they couldn't claim any
Ottoman possessions. However the atrocities committed against the civilian
Slav population during the war and during the Bulgarian April uprising had a
wide-spread response throughout Europe. As a result the Constantinople
Conference was held in December 1876 in Constantinople (Istanbul). At this
conference, at which Turkey was not represented, superpowers discussed the
boundaries of one or more future autonomous Bulgarian provinces within the
Ottoman Empire.

The Conference was interrupted by the Turkish foreign minister, who informed
the delegates that Turkey had approved a new constitution, which guaranteed
rights and freedoms of all ethnic minorities and Bulgarians would enjoy
equal rights with all Ottoman citizens. Despite that, Russia remained
hostile towards the Ottoman Empire, speculating that Turkish overture was no
permanent solution to the liberation of the Balkans. The remaining European
powers were paralyzed by strong civil support for the idea of Bulgarian
independence.

Russia declared war on Turkey on 24 April 1877. In the beginning of the war
the outcome was far from obvious. The Russians could raise a larger army, an
army of about 200,000 was within their reach. The Turks had about 160,000
troops on the Balkan peninsula. Turkish troops were better armed. The Turks
had the advantage of being fortified, and they also had a complete command
of the Black Sea, and had patrol boats along the Danube river.

In reality, however, most of the time Turks used only about 25% of their
military capacity. In addition to that, Turks had no idea of Russian plans
and made little attempt to predict their actions and to counter them. They
preferred to stay fortified and wait until the Russians knocked on their
doors. At the beginning of the war Russians destroyed all vessels along the
Danube, and mined the river, thus ensuring they could cross the Danube at
any point they want. This again didn't mean anything for the Turkish
command. In June a small Russian unit passed the Danube close to the delta,
at Galatz and marched in the direction of Ruse. This made the Turks even
more confident that the big Russian force is to come right through the
middle of the Turkish stronghold. Then in July the Russians unobstructed
constructed a bridge up the Danube at Svishtov, and started passing. There
were no significant Turkish troops in the area. The command in Istanbul
ordered Osman Pasha to march in that direction and fortify in the nearby
fortress of Nikopol. (Remember this was the town of Nicopolis which saw the
first Bulgarian and Turkish battles, when the Turkish Jihadis had first
invaded the Balkans.)

On his way to Nikopol Osman Pasha learned that the Russians had already
assumed firm control of that fortress, so he moved to Pleven. Less than 24
hours after Osman Pasha's fortification at Pleven, numerous Russian forces
under charismatic General Skobelev attacked the city.. At that point the
sides were almost equal in numbers and the Russian Army was quite
discouraged, so most analysts agree that a counter-attack would have allowed
the Turks to gain control and destroy the passing bridge. However, Osman
Pasha had orders to stay fortified in Pleven, and that's exactly what he
did.

Russians had no more troops to throw against Pleven, so they laid a siege on
it, and asked the Romanians to help with troops. Soon after that Romanians
passed the Danube and joined the siege. They fought bravely to capture the
Grivitza hills around Pleven, and kept them under their control from there
on, to the very end of the siege. The siege (July–December 1877) turned to
victory only after Russians cut off all supply routes of the fortified
Turks, starving them and thus forcing them to surrender.

The Russians also succeeded in capturing the passes at the Stara Planina
mountain which was crucial for maneuvering. Ironically they took control of
the Shipka pass, after the Turkish troops there, having repelled several
attacks evacuated. Later on Turks spent a lot of effort to recapture this
important route that could help them reinforce Osman Pasha in Pleven, but
all in vain. The Turkish offensive against the Shipka pass is considered one
of the major mistakes of the war, as there were other passes that were
virtually unguarded.

All this time a huge number of Turkish troops stayed fortified along the
Black Sea coast and engaged in very few operations. A strong Finnish
contingent as well as a Romanian corps and volunteer brigades from the local
Bulgarian population took part in the war fighting on the side the Russians.
This showed that the different kingdoms in Christendom, still had the vision
of looking upon the Muslim Turks as their common enemy.

Russians almost reach Istanbul, British intrigue saves the Turkish capital
from being captured for Christendom in 1878

In February 1878 the Russian army had almost reached Istanbul, but scared
the city might fall, the British sent a fleet of ships. Under negotiating
"help" from that fleet and the fact that the Russians had suffered such
enormous losses (by some estimates about 200,000 men) Russia settled for the
Treaty of San Stefano (March 3), which was later (July 13) succeeded by the
Treaty of Berlin, 1878. On their return home; in his gratitude at the
Finnish battalion which punched above its weight, the Tsar elevated the
battalion to the name Old Guard Battalion, which they still hold in the
modern Finnish Military. But unfortunately, this eight Russo-Turkish war saw
how British intrigue saved the Turkish capital from being captured for
Christendom in 1878 a city that had been lost by Christendom more than four
hundred years before, in 1453 to the Muslims.

The last Russo-Turkish War (First World War 1914-1918)

With the European nations battling each other in the First World War, Turkey
miscalculated that the Germans and Austro-Hungarians would win, and it
joined this alliance, as against the alliance of the Russians, British and
French. The Russian army in the initial stages of the war, gave a sever
drubbing to the Turks. The Russians were to eventually get embroiled in
their Revolutions in 1918 and 1920.

These string of defeats of the Turks by the Russians and the defeats
inflicted by the British using Lawrence of Arabia to foment rebellion in the
Turkish vilayets (provinces of the Ottoman empire) in the Middle East,
eventually led to the downfall of the Ottoman empire and its replacement by
the secular republic by Mustapha Kemal Pasha. This lead to the end of the
Turkish Jihad against Russia and Europe in a disgraceful defeat for the
Muslims and a cherished victory for the Russians and for the liberated
people of the Balkans.

LeNoir
2005-09-10 23:37:33 UTC
Permalink
Islam in Albania

Albania: Freedom Unconsidered
H. Abiva

[The Albanians embraced Islam nearly as a whole, which is remarkable when
seen in the light of Albanian history.

Their ancient origin was from the Illyrian people who inhabited the Adriatic
littoral of the Balkan peninsula. The rugged terrain of this region served
as a natural barrier against outside invaders and greatly slowed the spread
of foreign ideas, such as Christianity and linguistic borrowing. Before the
outlawing of religion in 1967, Albania's population was 75% Muslim, 15%
Orthodox Christian and 10% Roman Catholic. Eighty-five percent of Albanian
Muslims followed Hanafi school of thought.

The majority of urban dwellers were Muslim and most of central and northeast
Albania was populated by Muslims.

As the Eastern Roman Empire began to crumble away in the Balkans, Albania
was invaded by the expanding Serbian State and by the Kingdom of Naples. The
Serbs managed to gain minor footholds throughout the country while Naples
was able to capture and control all of the coastal towns. After the death of
the Serbian king Dushan in the mid 14th century, the Albanian chief Gjergj
Balsha managed to set up an independent principality centered around the
northern city of Shkoder. In 1385, Ghergj Balsha perished in a battle with
the Ottomans. Following their victory over a combined force of Hungarians,
Serbs, Bosnians and Wallachians on the banks of the Maritza River, Ottoman
troops expanded their hold over large portions of the south-central Balkans.

Continue:
http://members.tripod.com/worldupdates/islamintheworld/id22.htm
Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
2005-09-11 00:31:22 UTC
Permalink
Dell workers walk off job over prayer dispute
Muslims taking dispute to mediation, filing formal complaints

NASHVILLE, Tenn. - Thirty Muslims, most of them from Somalia, walked off
the job at the Dell Inc. because they say the company refused to let
them take a break for prayer at sunset.

The Muslim workers, who were packaging computers at Dell through a
temporary labor agency, are taking the dispute to mediation, both sides
said Friday.

Abdirizak Hassan, executive director of the Somali Community Center of
Nashville, said the workers walked out of the company's Nashville plant
Feb. 4 because they were not allowed to pray.

http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/7160832/
LeNoir
2005-09-11 00:46:14 UTC
Permalink
CAIR-OH TO DELIVER SCHOOL SUPPLIES FOR NEEDY STUDENTS


(COLUMBUS, OH, 8/29/05) - On Wednesday, August 31, representatives of the
Ohio office of the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR-OH) will
deliver school supplies to Mifflin Elementary School in Columbus for
distribution to students based on need. The supplies were donated by members
of the local Muslim community.

CAIR-OH's school supply drive is part of the group's national "Muslims Care"
campaign designed to promote volunteerism in the American Muslim community.
To learn more about "Muslims Care," go to http://www.muslims-care.org.

CAIR, America's largest Muslim civil liberties group has 31 offices and
chapters nationwide and in Canada. CAIR-OH has offices in Columbus,
Cleveland and Cincinnati. Its mission is to enhance understanding of Islam,
encourage dialogue, protect civil liberties, empower American Muslims, and
build coalitions that promote justice and mutual understanding.

To read CAIR's Mission, Vision Statement and Core Principles, go to:
http://www.cair-net.org/default.asp?Page=About. To learn more about CAIR-OH,
go to www.cair-ohio.com.

CONTACT: CAIR-OH President, Ahmad Al-Akhras, 614-989-5916, E-mail
***@cair-ohio.com, CAIR-OH Civil Rights Director, Jennifer Nimer,
614-451-3232, E-mail ***@cair-ohio.com.
lanman
2005-09-11 04:13:16 UTC
Permalink
On Sun, 11 Sep 2005 00:31:22 GMT, Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
Post by Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
Dell workers walk off job over prayer dispute
Muslims taking dispute to mediation, filing formal complaints
NASHVILLE, Tenn. - Thirty Muslims, most of them from Somalia, walked off
the job at the Dell Inc. because they say the company refused to let
them take a break for prayer at sunset.
The Muslim workers, who were packaging computers at Dell through a
temporary labor agency, are taking the dispute to mediation, both sides
said Friday.
Abdirizak Hassan, executive director of the Somali Community Center of
Nashville, said the workers walked out of the company's Nashville plant
Feb. 4 because they were not allowed to pray.
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/7160832/
Sounds like they quit to me. See ya.



----== Posted via Newsfeeds.Com - Unlimited-Uncensored-Secure Usenet News==----
http://www.newsfeeds.com The #1 Newsgroup Service in the World! >100,000 Newsgroups
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Shine that over here
2005-09-11 02:28:39 UTC
Permalink
Post by LeNoir
Islam in Albania
The Saga of Serbs’ Struggle against the Ottoman Jihad

Today Serbia, Bosnia and Albania are different nations, with Kosovo and
later perhaps Montenegro would become different nations. But there was a
time when all these people were one nation. There were differences of
language among them, but they were bound by one faith – that of the Eastern
Orthodox Church of Christianity. A cataclysmic event in the fourteenth
century was seared in the memory of all of them in which all of them paid
the price of preserving their national and cultural identity with blood and
death. While some survived to retain their original Eastern Orthodox
Christian character, some nations were not so fortunate. Centuries of
oppression by the Ottoman Turkish Jihadis have made them sterile to their
ancient history and has changed their character today. While they remain
European in their appearance and in some aspects of their culture, they have
become Islamized to propagate the faith of their erstwhile tormentors.

The four centuries of Ottoman tyranny has left a split in the cultural
character of the Balkan nations, a split along which there are bloody lines
of civil and military strife among the people, all of whom bore the brunt of
Muslim tyranny, but some of whom have forgotten that tyranny, by shifting
their loyalty to that of their tormentors and today carry forward the banner
of those tormentors, while fighting against those of their compatriots, who
have preserved an unbroken link with their original culture, religion and
nationality.

The same situation prevails in the Indian subcontinent where there is
perpetual conflict between Hindus and Muslims within India and the conflict
between India and Pakistan whose population is made up of Muslims who were
formerly Hindus and embraced Islam as a result of the tyranny of Muslim
rulers who had occupied the country for eight hundred years. In India as in
the Balkans, the period of Muslim occupation and tyranny was marked by long
drawn wars, and national struggles and the people finally threw off the
Muslim yoke, but in this process spread over many centuries, many of the
countrymen were forced by cruel circumstances of Muslim oppression as
Dhimmis (Zimmis) to give up their ancestral faith, culture and nationality
and go over to the invaders by embracing Islam and saving their life, limb
and the honor of their womenfolk from the evil intentions of those
schizophrenic savages - the Muslims. The irony is that these converts have
totally forgotten who they originally were and under what circumstances
their ancestors were forced to embrace that vile creed of Islam in a war
imposed on them by the Jihadis.

Origins of the Ottoman threat to Europe

In the early 1360s the Ottoman armies for the first time marched into Europe
by through Thrace and after a battle at a place named Gallipoli they
captured Adrianople (Edirne) and Philippopolis (Plovdiv) and forcing the
Byzantines to pay tribute. In 1366 the count Amadeus VI of Savoy (cousin to
John V Cantacuzenus, the Byzantine emperor) initiated a minor crusade to aid
the Byzantines. The count drove away the Turks from all of Europe except
Gallipoli. The very next year the Ottoman chieftain Murad attacked anew and
regained most of Thrace, including Adrianople.

In 1383 Murad declared himself sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Shortly
thereafter he again began a new campaign in Europe. Sofia, the Bulgarian
capitol, fell in 1385 and the city of Niš the year after. The Ottoman
Conquest halted in 1387 when the Serbs won the battle of Plocnik but two
years later Murad marched anew into the west.

The Battle of Kosovo


During the early 1370s Murad launched his forces deeper into Europe. At the
river Maritsa they encoutered a 70,000 man strong Serbian-Bulgarian army
under the Serbian king Vukasin. The ottoman army was smaller, but due to
tactics of subterfuge like attacking before dawn, and poisoning the horses
of the Serb-Bulgars they defeated the Serb-Bulgar army and king Vukasin
killed. Now that the Serbian coalition was weakened by such a blow Murad was
quick to advance further into Bulgaria and capture the cities of Dráma,
Kavála and Seres (Serrái). This is how the Ottomans snatched a victory from
the Serbs in the Battle of Kosovo but the sultan Murad himself was killed by
the valiant Serb warrior Miloš Kobilic.

To understand this battle in the context of Serbia, one must look back to
the 14th century when Kosovo was the center of the Serbian empire and site
of its most sacred churches and monasteries. In 1389, the Serbs lost the
land to the Ottoman Turks in a decisive battle fought in Kosovo Polje, the
Field of Blackbirds. The Battle of Kosovo is an event entrenched in the
Serbian Croatian (and all southern Slav) consciousness, uniting all Serbs
who treasure Kosovo as their Jerusalem, their holy land.

After this battle, what is Kosovo and Albania today was occupied by the
Ottomans who unleashed a merciless tyranny on the people of these lands.
Over the next 500 years, the Ottomans forcibly converted many Albanians to
Islam and once the entire population was converted, they forced these novice
Muslim Albanians to leave their homeland to settle in Kosovo to alter the
demographic balance in favor of Muslims and make the ethnic Christian Serbs
a minority. By the time the Serbs reclaimed Kosovo in the Balkans Wars of
1912 to 1913, ethnic Muslim Albanian converts made up a significant portion
of the population. And by 1950 they became a majority as their birth rate
boomed and Serbs continued to migrate north towards the Christian majority
lands. Today, 1.8 million Muslim Albanians outnumber Christian Serbs nine to
one in Kosovo – a fact that combined with events of recent history give an
opportunity for Albanians to proclaim Kosovo as their land.

Beyazid the Lightning Bolt’s revenge against the Serbs for his father’s
death in the Battle of Kosovo

Beyazid I succeeded to the sultanship upon the death of his father Murad in
the battle of Kosovo. In a rage over the attack, he ordered all Serbian
captives killed; Beyazid became known as Yildirim, the lightning bolt, for
his temperament. He conquered most of Bulgaria and northern Greece in
1389-1395 and laid siege on Constantinople in 1391-1398. On September 25,
1396 at the Battle of Nicopolis, his forces met the Venetian-Hungarian army
along with the Frankish knights led by king Sigismund of Hungary. The
Ottomans used their tactics of subterfuge by feigning to negotiate with the
Bulgarians and the Frankish knights and tricked them into a trap and won
this war. After which he signed a peace treaty with Hungary. Beyazid then
turned his attention to the east, conquering the Turkish emirate of Karaman
in 1397. This emirate was a remnant of the Seljuks whom the Ottoman had
displaced. This emirate was an ally of the Byzantine empire and an enemy of
the Ottoman power


Lessons from the Battle of Nicopolis

At Nicopolis, the Turks used techniques of hoodwinking the Bulgarians and
the French Knights into feigned negotiations, luring them into a tap and
then slaughtering them mercilessly. These are techniques that are still used
by the Jihadis in waving white flags and then gunning down the American
marines in Iraq, or of using women and children as human shields to act as
cover for the suicide bombers in Israel. The Jihadis still use foul means
which they used against the French Knights at Nicopolis. The knights, drawn
from all over Europe, had gone into battle assuming that they faced a
fierce, but honorable enemy. But with the massacre of the prisoners of war
the Europeans were reminded in 1396 at Nicopolis that they could henceforth
expect no mercy if captured by the invading Muslims, and thousands were to
meet their end in this brutal way. At Nicopolis thousands of Christian
soldiers who had laid down their weapons were slaughtered in a bloodthirsty
orgy lasting several hours after the battle had ended. The opening of
negotiations was normally used to end hostilities or to stop hostilities
from taking place. But with the subterfuge used at Nicopolis, with
devastating effect, taught the Europeans that the Muslims were never to be
trusted. That the Muslims by instinct were a dishonorable people.

The Mongol Timurid Attack on Ottomans

Around 1400 the Mongol leader Timur Lenk entered the Middle East. Timur Lenk
pillaged a few villages in eastern Anatolia and the conflict with the
Ottoman Empire exposed the soft underbelly of the Ottomans . In August, 1400
Timur and his horde burned the town of Sivas to the ground and advanced into
the interior. The war culminated at the Battle of Ankara in July, 1402.
Timur won, captured Beyazid, and was free to raid and pillage Anatolia.
Beyazid died in captivity in 1403. Al;though nominally Muslims, the Mongols
sacked many Ottoman cities and burned down Mosques to the ground in addition
to their mass slaughter of the Turkish civilian population. The Mongols
under Timur carried forward the tradition of Hulagu Khan’s sack of Baghdad
two centuries earlier in 1258.

After the defeat at Ankara followed a time of total chaos in the Empire.
Mongols roamed free in Anatolia and the political power of the sultan was
broken. After Beyazid was captured his remaining sons, Suleiman Çelebi, Isa
Çelebi, Mehmed Çelebi, and Mûsa fought each other in what became known as
the Ottoman Interregnum.

Of these sons, Mehmed Çelebi stood as victor in 1413 he crowned himself in
Edirne (Adrianople) as Mehmed I. His was the duty to restore the Ottoman
Empire to its former glory. The Empire had suffered hard from the
Interregnum; the Mongols were still at large in the east, even though Timur
Lenk had died in 1405; many of the Christian kingdoms of the Balkans had
broken free of Ottoman control; and the land, especially Anatolia, had
suffered hard from the war.

During his reign, Mehmed moved the capitol from Bursa to Adrianople
(Edirne), reinforced control over Bulgaria and Serbia, drove the Mongols
from Anatolia and assaulted Albania, Cilicia, the Turkish emirate of Candar
and Byzantine controlled areas in southern Greece.

Ottomans war with Venice

When Mehmed died in 1421, one of his sons, Murad, became sultan. Murad spent
his early years on the throne disposing off rivals and rebellions, most
notably the revolts of the Serbs. In 1423 he paid a short visit to
Constantinople, laid siege on it for a couple of months and forced the
Byzantines to pay additional tribute.

In 1423 the first regular Jihad against Venice (Italy) began. During Murad's
siege of Constantinople, the Byzantine Emperor's control over the Greek
city-states was weakened. Since Murad II had been on peaceful terms with
Venice the inhabitants of Constantinople requested, Venetian troops to take
control of the city of Salonika (Thessaloniki). But the Ottoman army that
laid siege to the city seized this opportunity of troop movement and killed
several Venetian soldiers in cold blood. The Venetians deemed the act in
contravention with their peace treaty with the Ottomans and declared full
war.

Murad acted swift, raised the siege of Constantinople and sent his armies to
Salonika. The Venetians had gained reinforcements by sea but when the
Ottomans stormed the city the outcome was given and the Venetians fled to
their ships. But when the Turks entered and plundered the city the Venetian
fleet suddenly started bombarding the city from the sea-side. The Ottomans
fled and the fleet was able to hold off the Ottomans until new Venetian
reinforcements could arrive to recapture the city. The outcome of the Battle
of Salonika was a setback for Murad and when Serbia and Hungary allied
themselves with Venice, the young sultan was involved in one of the Ottoman
Empire's worst conflicts ever, with all odds against it. Pope Martin V
encouraged other Christian states to join the war against the Ottomans, in
answer to the Pope’s call Austria sent troops to the Balkans. This defeat
was a setback for the Jihad.

Renewed War in the Balkans

The war in the Balkans began as the Ottoman army moved to recapture
Wallachia, which the Ottomans had lost to Mircea cel Batran during the
Interregnum and that now was an Hungarian vassal state. As the Ottoman army
entered Wallachia, the Serbs started attacking Bulgaria and, at the same
time, urged by the Pope, the Anatolian emirate of Karaman attacked the
Empire from the back. Murad had to split his army. The main force went to
defend Sofia and the reserves had to be called to Anatolia. The remaining
Ottoman troops in Wallachia were crushed by the Hungarian army that was now
moving south into Bulgaria where the Serbian and Ottoman armies battled each
other. The Serbs were defeated and the Ottomans turned to face the
Hungarians who fled back into Wallachia when they realized they were unable
to attack the Ottomans from the back. Murad fortified his borders against
Serbia and Hungary but did not try to retake Wallachia, instead he sent his
armies to Anatolia where they defeated the Emirate of Karaman in 1428.

In 1430 a large Ottoman fleet attacked Salonika by surprise. The Venetians
signed a peace treaty in 1432. The treaty gave the Ottomans the city of
Salonika and the surrounding land. The war between Serbia-Hungary and the
Ottoman Empire continued in 1441 when the Holy Roman Empire, Poland,
Albania, and the emirates Candar and Karaman intervened against the
Ottomans. Niš and Sofia fell to the Christians in 1443 and the year after
the Ottomans suffered a major defeat in the Battle of Jalowaz. July 12, 1444
Murad signed a treaty that officially gave Wallachia and the Bulgarian
province of Varna to Hungary, western Bulgaria (including Sofia) to Serbia
and forced Murad to abdicate in favor of his twelve-year-old son Mehmed.
Later the same year the Christians violated the peace treaty and attacked
anew. In November 11, 1444, Murad defeated the Polish-Hungarian army of
Janos Hunyadi at the Battle of Varna.

Murad was reinstated with the help of the Janissaries in 1446. Another peace
treaty was signed in 1448 giving the Empire Wallachia and Bulgaria and a
part of Albania. After the Balkan front was secured, Murad turned east and
defeated Timur Lenk's son, Shah Rokh, and the emirates of Candar and Karamn
in Anatolia. He died in the winter 1450-1451 in Edirne. Some have it that he
was wounded in a battle against Skanderbeg's Albanian guerilla.

Mehmed the Conqueror

Many doubted the young Mehmed II when he became sultan (again) following his
father's death. But by conquering and annexing the emirate of Karaman
(May-June, 1451) and by renewing the peace treaties with Venice (September
10) and Hungary (November 20) he proved his skills both on the military and
the political front and was soon accepted by the noble class of the Ottoman
court. Although, when he in 1452 proposed to attack Constantinople most of
the divan, and especially the Grand Vizier, Kandarli Halil, was against it
and critized the sultan for being too rash and overconfident in his
abilities.

On April 15, 1452, Mehmed ordered the construction of a castle on the shore
of the Bosphorus. It was completed on August 31 and was named the Rumeli
Hiskari (the European Castle). In September, Mehmed began mobilizing his
troops, setting up a large camp surrounding the city. On March 3, 1453, he
presented the Byzantine emperor Constantine XI with an ultimatum, but the
emperor declined to surrender the city. The Siege of Constantinople began on
April 6 and lasted for almost three months. On May 29 the city was finally
captured. Mehmed had the city rebuilt as his new capital, turning Hagia
Sophia into a mosque and constructing the Topkapi Palace in 1462.

When Constantinople was captured and the Byzantine Empire extinguished,
Mehmed turned south to Morea (Pelleponessos) where a last Greek kingdom
still remained in Christian hands, and west to the Balkans. In 1456 Mehmed
laid siege to Belgrade. On August 13 the Janissaries advanced into the city
but were ambushed and fled. Mehmed never succeded in taking Belgrade. Mehmed
entered Athens in 1460, until then ruled by emperor Constantine's two
brothers, Thomas and Demetrios. The following year Mehmed launched a
campaign into Anatolia defeating Sinope and Armenia under Uzun Hasan before
capturing the Empire of Trebizond August 15, 1461.

The European Counterattack on the Ottoman Jiha and the Serbian Struggle for
independence

The Ottoman Empire failed to keep up technologically with its European
rivals, especially Russia. It suffered a huge naval loss at the Battle of
Lepanto in 1571. After its defeat at the Battle of Vienna in 1683, the
Ottoman Empire began a long decline, culminating in the defeat of the empire
by the Allies in World War I. After the great defeat of the Ottomans at
Vienna, Austria, Prince Eugene of Savoy lead Austrian forces to further
victories. By 1699, the whole of Hungary had been conquered from the
Ottomans by the Austrians.

Fringe territories were lost to Russia in the north, but more importantly
the Empire began to fall behind technologically compared to the west. The
outside world was still mostly unaware of the extent of the Empire's decline
until the 1820s, when it became clear that the Ottoman armies had no way to
put down the Russian backed revolt in southern Greece. The great powers of
Europe decided to intervene to give Greece its independence.

Thus Greece became the first independent country created out of a section of
the Ottoman Empire. Russian aspirations for a section of the empire and
bases on Russia's southern flank provoked British fears over naval
domination of the Mediterranean and control of the land route to India.

When in 1853 Russia destroyed the entire Ottoman fleet at Sinop, Britain and
France concluded that armed intervention on the side of the Ottomans was the
only way to halt a massive Russian expansion, on the grounds that that the
Ottoman armies could do nothing to stop a Russian march on Constantinople.

Russia gives the last fatal blow to the Ottoman Jihad in Europe during the
Crimean War

The Crimean War illustrated how modern technology and superior weaponry were
the most important part of a modern army, and a part that the Ottoman Empire
was sorely lacking. While fighting alongside the British, French, and even
the Piedmontese, the Ottomans could see how far they had fallen behind.
While the industrial revolution had swept through western Europe, the
Ottoman Empire was still relying mainly on medieval technologies. The vast
empire had no railroads, and few telegraph lines. It took days before the
major naval defeat at Sinope was learned of in the capital. The poor
communications made it very difficult for Constantinople to control its
provinces. Thus the provinces in the Balkans, Africa, and Asia became almost
autonomous. Serbia was now an independent nation in all but name, paying
only token tribute to the Sultan. Most of the other provinces also paid only
fractions of the tribute required by law. Even the areas under the Sultan's
direct control had an outdated and corrupt tax system, drastically depleting
revenues. The disorganization and corruption permeating the nation also
discouraged trade, hurting both itself and its relations with other nations.
Compared to any other European power the Ottoman empire also had virtually
no industry, and its raw materials were not being harvested. It is not
surprising then that at the mid point of the 19th century the Ottoman Empire
was at the mercy of the Russians until outside forces intervened.

Things began to change after the Crimean war. The western powers had
invested a great deal of resources in the Crimean war and they did not wish
to come to the aid of the faltering Empire against a fellow European
Christian power. Thus the Ottoman Empire was invaded by British, French, and
Austrian businessmen and administrators who came to reform and rebuild the
economy. But the economy went downhill.

To overcome the economic crisis the Ottomans tried to initiate measures to
prevent an economic collapse throughout the empire by increasing the Jaziya
tax on non-Muslims. This touched off a revolt in Herzegovina. The revolt in
Herzegovina, quickly spread to Bosnia and then Bulgaria. Soon Serbian armies
also entered the war against the Turks. These revolts were the first test of
the new Ottoman armies. Even though they were not up to western European
standards the army fought effectively and brutally, and with mass slaughter
of the Serbs, the Ottomans again re-established their control. Soon the
Balkan rebellions were beginning to falter. In Europe, however, a new
problem was developing. The papers of Russia were filled with reports of
Turkish soldiers killing thousands of Slavs. Soon more than Russian
propaganda was moving southwards and a new Russo-Turkish war had begun.

Despite fighting better than they ever had before the advanced Ottoman
armies still were not equal to the Russian forces. This time there was no
help from abroad, in truth many European nations supported the Russian war,
as long as it did not get too close to Constantinople. Ten and a half months
later when the war had ended the age of Ottoman domination over the Balkans
was over. The Ottomans had fought well, the new navy of Ironclads had won
the battle for the Black Sea, and Russian advances in the Caucasus had been
kept minimal. In the Balkans, however, the Russian army, supported by
rebels, had pushed the Ottoman army out of Bulgaria, Walachia, Romania, and
much of East Rumelia and by the end of the war the artillery firing in
Thrace could be heard in Constantinople.

In response to the Russian proximity to the straits the British, against the
wishes of the Sultan, intervened in the war. A large task force representing
British naval supremacy entered the straits of Marmara and anchored in view
of both the royal palace and the Russian army. The British may have saved
the Ottoman empire once again, but it ended the rosy relations between the
two powers that had endured since the Crimean War. Looking at the prospect
of a British entry into the war the Russians decided to settle the dispute.
The treaty of San Stephano gave Romania and Montenegro their independence,
Serbia and Russia each received extra territory, Austria was given control
over Bosnia, and Bulgaria was given almost complete autonomy.

The autocratic Sultans of the Ottoman Empire had remained unchanged in
centuries, while the rest of the world slowly became more democratic and
liberal. The loss of nearly a quarter of the Empire's territory added to the
already existing economic problems to make a situation ripe for revolution.
The situation was especially dangerous in Constantinople, which contained
thousands of refugees fleeing the Balkans. A number of small coups broke
out, trying to overthrow the Sultan. None of them were well organized or
even remotely successful, but they filled Abd-ul-Hamid II with a paranoia
that lead to a self-imposed isolation in the palace of Yildiz. The entire
Ottoman Empire was built around the Sultan, but this Sultan never left his
palace and would only see a few trusted advisors. Unlike in the other states
of Europe, such as Germany, where a weak ruler could be made up for by a
powerful Prime Minister, there was no one who could make up for a weak
Sultan. While in his self-imposed exile the Sultan's Empire continued to
fall apart. Egypt had long been only loosely connected to the Ottoman Empire
and in 1882 the British incorporated it into their empire to protect the
Suez canal. In 1896 Crete revolted and received aid from the Greeks. This
soon lead to a war between the Ottoman Empire and its former province. For
the first time in centuries the Ottoman Empire won a war unaided. Greece was
invaded from the North and the Ottoman armies marched south as far as
Thermopylae before King George I of Greece agreed to an armistice. Greece
lost some of Macedonia, and had to pay an indemnity to Turkey. Crete was,
however, given almost complete autonomy to appease Britain and Russia who
did not want to see its Christian inhabitants returned to the Turks.

The military victory did nothing to stop the rise of revolutionary
sentiments. In 1902 a meeting in Paris brought together the leadership of
the "Young Turks" - a group, mainly made of students, who were fervent
Turkish nationalists wishing to do away with the archaic Empire. In
Bulgaria, Serbia and Macedonia nationalist freedom fighters started bombing
Ottoman banks and government buildings demanding total independence. The two
rebellions eventually joined in 1908 when an army regiment stationed in
Macedonia rebelled and fled into the hills. It was joined by Macedonian
rebels as well as large numbers of Young Turks. This group called itself the
Committee of Union and Progress (CUP). Soon other regiments in Bulgaria and
Rumelia mutinied as did many of the Anatolian soldiers sent in to end the
rebellion. Abd-ul-Hamid had no choice but to give into the revolutionaries'
demands. A constitution was adopted and a parliament created, Abd-ul-Hamid
was now the leader of an Ottoman constitutional monarchy. Soon after the
first election, which CUP won easily, there was a counter coup by the more
conservative military officers. The coup failed to destroy the new
government, mainly due to the skill of an unknown Adjutant-Major named
Mustafa Kemal. When the liberals discovered that the Sultan had aided the
coup they decided that he must go. Thus a fetva was issued and Abd-ul-Hamid
II's long reign was at an end.

Final Defeat of the Ottoman Jihad in Europe

Italy declared war on the Empire on September 29, 1911, demanding the
turnover of Tripoli and Cyrenaica. When the empire did not respond, Italian
forces took those areas on that November 5 (this act was confirmed by an act
of the Italian Parliament on February 25, 1912). Three years later on
November 5, 1914 the United Kingdom annexed Cyprus, and together with France
declared war on the Ottoman empire.

The final end to the aged and crippled empire came in the First World War.
Close relations with Germany and the continued enmity towards Russia pushed
the empire into joining the Central Powers. The British supported revolt of
the Arabs, who lead by T. E. Lawrence defeated the Ottoman forces in the
Middle East. At the end of the war the Ottoman government collapsed
completely and the empire was divided amongst the victorious powers. France
and Britain got most of the Middle East while Italy and Greece were given
much of Anatolia. At the same time an independent Armenian state was
established in eastern Turkey, and an autonomous Kurdish area was also
created. The Serbs and Croats meanwhile brought together all the Southern
Slavs to form a single nation named Yugoslavia.

But now there was an additional factors to account for. Amidst the Slavs
there were many who had converted to Islam during the intervening five
centuries of the Ottoman Jihad in Europe. These converts did not fully
identify with the independence of their homeland from Turkish rule. Many of
them secretly plotted for Turkish rule to return. And when this seemed
impossible they nurtured within themselves the notion that as Muslims
(although Slavs), they were a distinct nation. This feeling was not erased
by the six decades of Communist rule under Marshal Tito (the Croatian
Strongman who held Yugoslavia together). The Muslim Slavs of
Bosnia-Herzegovina and the Muslims Illyrians of Albania and Kosovo fomented
a rebellion that broke into an insurrections against the Slves (Serbs and
Croats) to break away and form separate Muslim nations. It is just a matter
of time till they declare themselves to be “Islamic Republics” of Albania,
Kosovo and Bosnia. The Slavs were forced into a defensive war to preserve
the unity of their nations.

Solobodan Milosevic represents the national aspirations of all the Southern
Slavs

Solobodan Milosevic represents the national aspirations of all the Southern
Slavs, Serbs, Croats, Montenegrins, to reverse the historical wrongs done to
their nation by the Ottoman Jihadis. In the campaigns that were described as
ethnic cleansing, were those that followed the age old European Christian
tradition of remaining steadfast in face of a beastly Muslim attack,
occupation, tyranny. The European Christians were first beaten back and
bewildered when they first encountered the Muslim Jihad first in
Mesopotamia, when the Muslims overran Jerusalem, Cesaria, Damascus. The
subterfuge in war of Muslim soldiers dressing up as women and attacking the
bemused Christian Byzantine soldiers at the battle of Hieryomak (Al Yarmuk),
followed by the mass slaughter of the civilian population especially at
Cesaria, so seared the memory of the Byzantine Christians that they took
some time to find their feet.

This was so, since in no time in Human history had any invader been so
inhuman, like the Muslims. But once the Byzantine Christians had gauged
their adversary as a sub-human schizophrenic savages that they were, the
Christians returned every barbarity with equally fierce resistance. The same
was true for the Spanish Christians (Visigoths) who were first overrun by
the Moors in 711. After the subterfuge they saw the battle of Guadelete in
Southern Spain, and the grisly sight of the head of their King Roederic
(Rodrigo) being stuck on a spear and paraded before the Christian soldiers
to break their spirit, the Spanish too learnt the kind of beastly enemy they
faced in the Muslims. And they returned the favour to the Muslims in equal
measure in the Reconquista and the Inquisition. Were a result of this
unnervingly brutal experience at the hands of the beastly Jihadis. Those who
did not learn this lesson were to be extinct as were the Christians of North
Arabia, Sinai, Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Anatolia (Turkey), North Africa,
Nubia, (North Sudan), as also the Zoroastrians of Iran, Baluchistan,
Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, the Buddhists of Afghanstan, Chinese
Turkestan (Xinkiang), Kazakastan, the Hindus of Pakistan, Bangladesh,
Kashmir, the nature and idol worshipping Arabs of Saudi Arabia, and many
other unnamed people who are extinct today and whose descendants survivors
as robots trapped in the mental prison of Islam.

The Serbs under Milosevic, only tried to reclaim what was theirs in the only
way possible with the Muslim, with that of blood and death. The Muslim
understand no other language. If humanity and our civilization is to be
emancipated from the Muslim threat, then the only way out is to match and
outmatch the Muslims at their gameplan, in their methods of war, in their
cruelty. pervasiveness, persistence, foresight, deception, subterfuge, hate
for the adversary and all other departments of the war. We cannot fault the
Serbs for what those with a faint heart, or those whit a sneaking sympathy
of the Muslims, or those who nurture paranoid fright of the Muslims decry
and moan as “Ethnic Cleansing of the Muslims”

Islam, Fanatic Islam and Islamic Terrorism

Today many the world over are innocent of how Islam was founded, how it grew
and what Islam implies for the future of Humankind. So there are endless
debates that Islam is a religion of peace, that all Muslims are not
fanatical, and that we need to differentiate between, Muslims and
terrorists. The reading of the story of Islam so far should be enough to
dispel the notion that Islam differs from Islamic fanaticism. Islam is
Fanaticism, or that Islam is a religion of peace and that the Terrorists
have hijacked a peaceful religion. No it is Islam which given birth to
Terrorism, which started from the evil mind of its founder Mohammed (yimach
shmo ve-zichro - may his name and memory be obliterated) and has filtered
down to the last follower (Muslim) today.

Mohammed (yimach shmo ve-zichro - may his name and memory be obliterated) a
shrewd man knew that there was always a danger of Muslims deserting Islam
and reverting to some other less blood-thirsty religion, so he made it a
capital offense for anyone leaving Islam, having once accepted it. A Murtad
(Muslim Apostate) has to be killed, and it is the duty of a Muslim to kill
any other Muslim who leaves Islam. There can also never ever be any
discussion on the murderous commands of the Quran, since it is the word of
god, or so Mohammed (yimach shmo ve-zichro - may his name and memory be
obliterated)told his followers. To be doubly sure that his flock remains
together in its murderous ken (prison), he decreed that it was compulsory
for all Muslims to come together and pray five times during the day. So
there was no chance for his followers to leave Islam and emancipate
themselves. Getting into Islam was a one way street. Islam was a dead end,
where you could enter, (in fact you were forced to enter at the pain of
death) , but could never leave, since you would be killed. In fact such was
the indoctrination and mass hysteria that Mohammed (yimach shmo ve-zichro -
may his name and memory be obliterated) started, that in a generation or so,
the new converts forgot that they were not Muslims, and in fact in North
Africa, they even forgot that they were not Arabs. This sealed the fate of
all those who were forced to embrace Islam from ever becoming decent
thinking humans ever again. (sigh).


Only the total destruction of non-Muslim heritage and wholesale slaughter of
non-Muslims got the Muslims Victory

With every Muslim military victory, there was not just a change of ruler,
but a wholesale slaughter of those who refused to convert or pay Jaziya.
There was also a total destruction of the pre-Islamic culture, educational
institution, libraries, he planned and deliberately implemented slaughter of
the priestly and warrior class. This was done to enfeeble the conquered
populace so much that they would forget who they were their national and
cultural identity and be compelled to become Muslims. This was never known
to the human race, with any other conqueror, like Alexander, Julius Caesar,
Hannibal, or even those who came after the Muslims like the British
Colonialists, or the Spanish Conquistadors. Yes the Spanish Conquistadors
were ruthless, but in spite of all they did to he native Americans, the
naïve Americans still have preserved their memory of they being a people
different from the Spanish Conquistadors.

Ask any Egyptian who he is, he will say he is an Arab, were the Pharaohs
Arabs? Were the builders of the Pyramids, Arab? Ask any Libyan, Sudanese,
Algerian, Tunisian, Somalian, who he is he will say he is an Arab. These are
people, whom the conquering Muslim Arab, so Arabized that they have
forgotten who they are, their national identities have completely been
submerged into the Arab Muslim Ummah, This has not happened with the native
Americans or the Maoris or the Africans, in spite of the fact that apartheid
was practiced in South Africa. The Arabs as conquers totally brainwashed at
the point of the sword all the conquered people and arabized them.

This is relevant today for those who seek to defeat Islam. If the Muslim
have to be saved from Islam, then it is not sufficient to conquer the Muslim
countries and try to being democracy to them, we have to de-Islamize these
people, if they are to be emancipated as civilized beings. Islam has
brutalized them and made them robotic followers and so robotic killers,
narrow-minded individuals, despotic rulers, and cruel sadists by following
the injunctions of the Instruction Manual of Terrorism (the Quran).
Shine that over here
2005-09-11 02:31:15 UTC
Permalink
Post by LeNoir
Islam in Albania
Many of us think that Albania and Kosovo are Muslim nations. Not many know
about how they became Muslims.

The saga of the Jihadi onslaught on Albania begins when the expanding
Ottoman Empire overpowered the Balkan Peninsula in the fourteenth and
fifteenth centuries. When the wild Ottoman armies burst upon Albania, the
feuding Albanian clans proved no match for the armies of the sultan

The division of the Albanian-populated lands into small, quarreling fiefdoms
ruled by independent feudal lords and tribal chiefs made them easy prey for
the Ottoman armies The Ottoman Turks expanded their empire from Anatolia to
the Balkans in the fourteenth century. They crossed the Bosporus in 1352,
and in 1389 they crushed a Serb-led army that included Albanian forces at
Kosovo Polje, located in the southern part of present-day Yugoslavia. Europe
gained a brief respite from Ottoman pressure in 1402 when the Muslim Mongol
leader, Tamerlane, attacked Anatolia from the east, killed the Turks'
absolute ruler, the sultan Beyazid, and sparked a civil war amongst the
Muslims. When order was restored, the Ottomans renewed their westward
progress. In 1453 Sultan Mehmed II's forces overran Constantinople and
killed the last Byzantine emperor.

The division of the Albanian-populated lands into small, quarreling fiefdoms
ruled by independent feudal lords and tribal chiefs made them easy prey for
the Ottoman armies. In 1385 the Albanian ruler of Durrës, Karl Thopia,
appealed to the sultan for support against his rivals, the Balsha family. An
Ottoman force quickly marched into Albania along the Via Egnatia and routed
the Balshas.

How the Janissaries were formed - Albanian clan chiefs had to send their
sons to the Turkish court as hostages, to be converted to Islam and provide
the Ottoman army with auxiliary troops.

But the principal Albanian clans soon revolted against the Turks. In
response to the first Albanian rebellion against Ottoman tyranny, Sultan
Murad II launched a major onslaught in the Balkans in 1423, and the Turks
took Janina in 1431 and Arta on the Ionian coast, in 1449. Although the
Turks allowed conquered Albanian clan chiefs to maintain their positions and
property, but they had to pay tribute, and more importantly they had to send
their sons to the Turkish court as hostages, and provide the Ottoman army
with auxiliary troops.

The first Albanians to convert to Islam were young boys of the Chieftains of
different Albanian clans. These boys were forcibly conscripted into the
sultan's military and administration. Gjon Kastrioti of Krujë was one such
Albanian clan leaders who was forced to submit to Turkish suzerainty. He was
compelled to send his four sons to the Ottoman capital to be trained for
military service. The youngest, Gjergj Kastrioti (1403-68), who would become
the Albanians' greatest national hero, captured the sultan's attention.
Renamed Iskander when he converted to Islam, the young man participated in
military expeditions to Asia Minor and Europe.

Skanderbeg – the first Albanian Freedom fighter against the Jihad

When appointed to administer a Balkan district, Iskander became known as
Skanderbeg. After Ottoman forces under Skanderbeg's command suffered defeat
in a battle near Nis, in present-day Serbia, in 1443, Skanderbeg rushed to
Krujë and tricked a Turkish pasha into surrendering him the Kastrioti family
fortress. Skanderbeg then re-embraced Roman Catholicism and declared a holy
war against the Turks.

On March 1, 1444, Albanian chieftains gathered in the cathedral of Lezhë
with the prince of Montenegro and delegates from Venice and proclaimed
Skanderbeg commander of the Albanian resistance. All of Albania, including
most of Epirus, accepted his leadership against the Ottoman Turks, but local
leaders kept control of their own districts. Under a red flag bearing
Skanderbeg's heraldic emblem, an Albanian force of about 30,000 men held off
brutal Ottoman campaigns against their lands for twenty-four years. Twice
the Albanians overcame sieges of Krujë. In 1449 the Albanians routed Sultan
Murad II himself. Later, they repulsed attacks led by Sultan Mehmed II. In
1461 Skanderbeg went to the aid of his suzerain, King Alfonso I of Naples,
against the kings of Sicily. The government under Skanderbeg was always
under attack from the Ottomans, since, at times some local Albanian rulers
who had converted to Islam cooperated with the Ottoman Turks against him.
When Skanderbeg died at Lezhë, the sultan reportedly exclaimed, "Asia and
Europe are mine at last. Woe to Christendom! She has lost her sword and
shield." This Albanian resistance to the Turks in the mid-fifteenth century
won them acclaim all over Europe.

But with support from Naples and the Vatican, resistance to the Ottoman
Empire continued mostly in Albania's highlands, where the chieftains even
opposed the construction of roads out of fear that they would bring Ottoman
soldiers and tax collectors. The Albanians', however, failed to halt the
overwhelming Ottoman onslaught. Krujë fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1478;
Shkodër succumbed in 1479 after a fifteen-month siege; and the Venetians
evacuated Durrës in 1501. The defeats triggered a great Albanian exodus to
southern Italy, especially to the kingdom of Naples, as well as to Sicily,
Greece, and Romania,. Most of the Albanian refugees belonged to the Orthodox
Church. Some of the émigrés to Italy converted to Roman Catholicism, and the
rest established a Uniate Church. The Albanians of Italy significantly
influenced the Albanian national movement in the next four centuries, and
Albanian Franciscan priests, most of whom were descended from émigrés to
Italy, played a significant role in the preservation of Catholicism in
Albania's northern regions.

The arrogant and cruel Ottoman sultans considered themselves God's agent on
earth – the Khalifah (Caliph), the leader of a religious--not a
national--state whose purpose was to defend and propagate Islam at the point
of the sword, using foul means. Non-Muslims paid extra taxes and held an
inferior status. Only by converting to Islam, individuals among the
conquered could elevate themselves to the privileged stratum of society. In
the early years of the empire, all Ottoman high officials were the sultan's
bondsmen the children of Christian subjects chosen in childhood for their
promise as sturdy fighters, converted to Islam, and educated to serve. Some
were selected from prisoners of war, others sent as ransom, and still others
obtained through devshirme, the tribute of children levied in the Ottoman
Empire's Balkan lands. Many of the best fighters in the sultan's elite
guard, the janissaries, were conscripted as young boys from Christian
Albanian families, and high-ranking Ottoman officials often had Albanian
bodyguards.

In the early seventeenth century, many Albanian converts to Islam migrated
elsewhere within the Ottoman Empire and found careers in the Ottoman
military and government. Some attained powerful positions in the Ottoman
administration. The blue eyed and blond, Mustapha Kemal Pasha (Ataturk) was
the descendant of these Janissary émigrés.

The Ottoman authorities always stressed on the conversion of Christians to
Islam. In addition to open physical coercion, from the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries, economic pressures and coercion was used and this
produced the conversion of about two-thirds of the empire's Albanian
Muslims. The Ottoman Turks first focused their conversion campaigns on the
Roman Catholic Albanians of the north and then on the Orthodox population of
the south. The Ottoman authorities increased taxes, especially poll taxes,
to make conversion economically attractive. During and after a Christian
counteroffensive against the Ottoman Empire from 1687 to 1690, when Albanian
Catholics revolted against their Muslim overlords, the Ottoman pasha of Pec,
a town in the south of present-day Yugoslavia, retaliated by forcing entire
Albanian villages to accept Islam at the pain of death. He burnt down their
farmlands, held young boys hostage to be sent to Istanbul (Constantinople).
The Ottomans encouraged the new converts and the Albanian beys to move from
the northern mountains to the fertile lands of Kosovo, which had been
abandoned by thousands of Orthodox Serbs fearing reprisals for their
collaboration with the Christian forces. This is how Kosovo became a
Albanian Muslim majority area, which had till then belonged to the Serbian
Orthodox Christians.

In the seventeenth century most of the conversion's in Albania to Islam took
place in the lowlands of the Shkumbin River valley, where the Ottoman Turks
could easily apply pressure because of the area's accessibility to Ottoman
armies.

The Bektashi dervishes were outwardly Muslims, but practiced a mixed form of
religion that derived from many strains of their faiths before their forced
conversion to Islam

Many Albanians, however, converted in name only and secretly continued to
practice Christianity. Often one branch of a family became Muslim while
another remained Christian, and many times these families celebrated their
respective religious holidays together. In the early seventeenth century,
Albanians were forced to convert to Islam in great numbers. Entire clans had
to submit to Islam at the pain of death. Within a century, the Albanian
Islamic community was split between Sunni Muslims and adherents to the
Bektashi sect that mixed Islam with pre-Islamic beliefs. They were outwardly
Muslims, but practiced a mixed form of religion that derived from many
strains of their faiths before their forced conversion to Islam. As early as
the eighteenth century, the Bektashi dervishes, had spread into the empire's
Albanian-populated lands. Bektashism became the janissaries' official faith
in the late sixteenth century. The Bektashi sect contains features of the
Turks' pre-Islamic religion and emphasizes man as an individual.
Interestingly, unveiled women, participate in Bektashi ceremonies on an
equal basis, and the celebrants use wine despite the ban on alcohol in the
Quran. The Bektashis became the largest religious group in southern Albania
after the sultan disbanded the janissaries in 1826. Bektashi leaders played
key roles in the Albanian nationalist movement of the late nineteenth
century and were to a great degree responsible for the Albanians'
traditional tolerance of religious differences.

The Albanian people also became divided into two distinct tribal and
dialectal groupings, the Gegs and Tosks. In the rugged northern mountains,
Geg shepherds lived in a tribal society often completely independent of
Ottoman rule. In the south, peasant Muslim and Orthodox Tosks worked the
land for Muslim beys, provincial rulers who frequently revolted against the
sultan's authority. In the nineteenth century, the Ottoman sultans tried in
vain to shore up their collapsing empire by introducing a series of reforms
aimed at reining in recalcitrant local officials and dousing the fires of
nationalism among its myriad peoples. The power of nationalism, however,
proved too strong to counteract.

Ottoman Tyranny b Taxation a part of the Jihad

During the centuries of Ottoman rule, the Albanian lands remained one of
Europe's most backward areas. In the mountains north of the Shkumbin River,
Geg herders maintained their self-governing society comprised of clans. An
association of clans was called a bajrak, Taxes on the northern tribes were
difficult if not impossible for the Ottomans to collect because of the rough
terrain and fierceness of the Albanian highlanders. Some mountain tribes
succeeded in defending their independence through the centuries of Ottoman
rule, engaging in intermittent guerrilla warfare with the Ottoman Turks, who
never deemed it worthwhile to subjugate them. Until recent times, Geg clan
chiefs, or bajraktars, exercised patriarchal powers, arranged marriages,
mediated quarrels, and meted out punishments. The tribesmen of the northern
Albanian mountains recognized no law but the Code of Lek, a collection of
tribal laws transcribed in the fourteenth century by a Roman Catholic
priest. The code regulates a variety of subjects, including blood vengeance.
Even today, many Albanian highlanders regard the canon as the supreme law of
the land.

South of the Shkumbin River, the mostly peasant Tosks lived in compact
villages under elected rulers. Some Tosks living in settlements high in the
mountains maintained their independence and often escaped payment of taxes.
The Tosks of the lowlands, however, were easy for the Ottoman authorities to
control. The Albanian tribal system disappeared there, and the Ottomans
imposed a system of military fiefs under which the sultan granted soldiers
and cavalrymen temporary landholdings, or timars, in exchange for military
service. By the eighteenth century, many military fiefs had effectively
become the hereditary landholdings of economically and politically powerful
families who squeezed wealth from their hard-strapped Christian tenant
farmers.

Beginning of Albanian Muslim warlordism which is today continued in the
Kosovar ethnic cleansing of Serbs from Kosovo

The weakening of Ottoman central authority and the timar system brought
anarchy to the Albanian-populated lands. In the late eighteenth century, two
Muslim Albanian centers of power emerged: Shkodër, under the Bushati family;
and Janina, under Ali Pasha of Tepelenë. When it suited their goals, both
places cooperated with the Sublime Porte, and when it was expedient to defy
the central government, each acted independently.

The Bushati family dominated the Shkodër region through a network of
alliances with various highland tribes. Kara Mahmud a chieftain of the
Bushati clan attempted to establish an autonomous principality and expand
the lands under his control by playing off Austria and Russia against the
Sublime Porte. In 1785 Kara Mahmud's forces attacked Montenegrin territory,
and Austria offered to recognize him as the ruler of all Albania if he would
ally himself with Vienna against the Sublime Porte. Seizing an opportunity,
Kara Mahmud sent the Ottoman sultan the heads of an Austrian delegation in
1788, and in recognition for this brutal act, the Ottomans appointed him
governor of Shkodër. When he attempted to wrest land from Montenegro in
1796, however, he was defeated and beheaded by the Montenegrin Serbs. Kara
Mahmud's brother, Ibrahim, cooperated with the Sublime Porte until his death
in 1810, his successor, Mustafa Pasha Bushati, carried forward the policy of
making war on the Christians by his participation in Ottoman military
campaigns against Greek revolutionaries and rebel pashas. He cooperated with
the mountain tribes and brought a large area under his control.

The coming of independence and Albanian Muslim converts’ alignment with the
dying Ottomans

The Albanians, because of the preponderance of Muslims link with Islam and
their internal social divisions, were the last of the Balkan peoples to
develop a national consciousness, which was triggered by fears that the
Ottoman Empire would lose its Albanian-populated lands to the emerging
Christian Balkan states--Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, and Greece. Albanian
leaders formed the Prizren League in 1878, which pressed for territorial
autonomy, and after decades of unrest a major uprising exploded in the
Albanian-populated Ottoman territories in 1912, on the eve of the First
Balkan War. The 1877-78 Russo-Turkish War dealt a decisive blow to Ottoman
power in the Balkan Peninsula, leaving the empire with only a precarious
hold on Macedonia and the Albanian-populated lands. The Albanians' fear that
the lands they inhabited would be partitioned among Montenegro, Serbia,
Bulgaria, and Greece fueled the rise of Albanian Islamism.

The first post Russo-Turkish War treaty, the Treaty of San Stefano was
signed on March 3, 1878, and it assigned Albanian-populated lands to Serbia,
Montenegro, and Bulgaria. The Treaty of San Stefano triggered profound
anxiety among the Albanian Muslims meanwhile, and it spurred their leaders
to organize a defense of the lands they inhabited. In the spring of 1878,
influential Albanian Muslims in Constantinople--including Abdyl Frasheri,
the Albanian national movement's leading figure during its early
years--organized a secret committee to direct the Albanians' resistance. In
May the group called for a general meeting of representatives from all the
Albanian-populated lands. On June 10, 1878, about eighty delegates, mostly
Muslim religious leaders, clan chiefs, and other influential people from the
four Albanian-populated Ottoman vilayets, met in the Kosovo town of Prizren.
The delegates set up a standing organization, the Prizren League, under the
direction of a central committee that had the power to impose taxes and
raise an army. The Prizren League worked to gain autonomy for the Albanians
and to thwart implementation of the Treaty of San Stefano, but not to create
an independent Albania.

Muslim Solidarity raises its ugly head in the Balkans – this was to presage
the Serb-Muslim civil war of the 1990s

At first the Ottoman authorities supported the Prizren League, but the
Sublime Porte pressed the delegates to declare themselves to be first and
foremost Ottomans rather than Albanians. Some delegates supported this
position and advocated emphasizing Muslim solidarity and the defense of
Muslim lands, including present-day Bosnia and Hercegovina. Other
representatives, under Frasheri's leadership, focused on working toward
Albanian autonomy and creating a sense of Albanian identity that would cut
across religious and tribal lines. Because conservative Muslims constituted
a majority of the representatives, the Prizren League supported maintenance
of Ottoman suzerainty.

Albania wanted to remain united with the Ottoman Empire

In July 1878, the league sent a memorandum to the Great Powers at the
Congress of Berlin, which was called to settle the unresolved problems of
Turkish War, demanding that all Albanians be united in a single Ottoman
province that would be governed from Bitola by a Turkish governor. The
Congress of Berlin ignored the league's memorandum, and Germany's Otto von
Bismarck even proclaimed that an Albanian nation did not exist. The congress
ceded to Montenegro the cities of Bar and Podgorica and areas around the
mountain villages of Gusinje and Plav, which Albanian leaders considered
Albanian territory. Serbia also won Albanian-inhabited lands. The Albanian
Muslims, who were loyal to their co-religionists - the Ottomans, vehemently
opposed the territorial losses. Albanians also feared the possible loss of
Epirus to Greece. The Prizren League organized armed resistance efforts in
Gusinje, Plav, Shkodër, Prizren, Prevesa, and Janina. A border tribesman at
the time described the frontier as "floating on blood."

In August 1878, the Congress of Berlin ordered a commission to trace a
border between the Ottoman Empire and Montenegro. The congress also directed
Greece and the Ottoman Empire to negotiate a solution to their border
dispute. The Great Powers expected the Ottomans to ensure that the Albanians
would respect the new borders, ignoring that the sultan's military forces
were too weak to enforce any settlement and that the Ottomans could only
benefit by the Albanians' resistance. The Sublime Porte, in fact, armed the
Albanians and allowed them to levy taxes, and when the Ottoman army withdrew
from areas awarded to Montenegro under the Treaty of Berlin, Roman Catholic
Albanian tribesmen simply took control. The Albanians' successful resistance
to the treaty forced the Great Powers to alter the border, returning Gusinje
and Plav to the Ottoman Empire and granting Montenegro the mostly Muslim
Albanian-populated coastal town of Ulcinj. But the Albanians there refused
to surrender as well. Finally, the Great Powers blockaded Ulcinj by sea and
pressured the Ottoman authorities to bring the Albanians under control. The
Great Powers decided in 1881 to cede Greece only Thessaly and the small
Albanian-populated district of Arta.

Faced with growing international pressure "to pacify" the refractory
Albanians, the sultan dispatched a large army under Dervish Turgut Pasha to
suppress the Prizren League and deliver Ulcinj to Montenegro. Albanians
loyal to the empire supported the Sublime Porte's military intervention. In
April 1881, Dervish Pasha's 10,000 men captured Prizren and later crushed
the resistance at Ulcinj. The Prizren League's leaders and their families
were arrested and deported. Frasheri, who originally received a death
sentence, was imprisoned until 1885 and exiled until his death seven years
later. In the three years it survived, the Prizren League effectively made
the Great Powers aware of the Albanian people and their national interests.
Montenegro and Greece received much less Albanian-populated territory than
they would have won without the league's resistance.

The new found loyalty of the Albanian Muslim converts to their erstwhile
tormentors – the Ottomans, frustrated Albanian leaders' efforts to instill
in their people an Albanian rather than an Ottoman identity. The Muslim
wanted tobe part of the Ottoman empire, while the Christian minority wanted
an independent Albania, or unity with Christian Montenegro Divided into four
vilayets, Albanians had no common geographical or political nerve center.
The Albanians' religious differences forced the Lbanian population into two
hostile camps, united by language and history, but divided by religion
_Islam and Christianity.

The most significant factor uniting the Albanians, their spoken language,
lacked a standard literary form and even a standard alphabet. Each of the
three available choices, the Latin, Cyrillic, and Arabic scripts, implied
different political and religious orientations opposed by one or another
element of the population. The Roman catholics used the Latin script, the
Orthodox Christian used the Cyrillic script and the Muslim used the Arabic
script, although very any of the Muslim converts did not know how to read or
write.

Meanwhile the Ottoman Empire continued to crumble after the Congress of
Berlin. In Macedonia, where Bulgarian-, Greek-, and Serbian-backed freedom
fighters were fighting Ottoman authorities for independence, Muslim
Albanians guerrilla groups started attacking Christians and in the Muslim
majority areas, they started a pogrom of the Christians, forcing them to
migrate out of Albania and Kosovo, making the Muslim majority character of
these areas more pronounced. In 1907 Albanian guerrillas assassinated
Korçë's Greek Orthodox Patriarch, adding to the insecurity and sense of
alienation amongst the original Christian inhabitants of Albania and Kosovo.

When Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece laid claim to Albanian lands during
World War I, the Albanian Muslims declared independence. Meanwhile the First
Balkan War, erupted before a final settlement could be worked out. Most
Albanians remained neutral during the war, during which the Balkan
allies--the Serbs, Bulgarians, and Greeks--quickly drove the Turks to the
walls of Constantinople. The Montenegrins surrounded Shkodër with the help
of northern Christian Albanian tribes anxious to fight the Ottoman Turks.
Serb forces took much of northern Albania, and the Greeks captured Janina
and parts of southern Albania.

Internal European Politics lead to the emergence of a Muslim Albania

Christian Montenegrin tribesmen had resorted to terror, mass murder, and
forced conversion in territories they claimed as historically theirs, had to
surrender Shkodër. Serbia reluctantly succumbed to an ultimatum from
Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Italy to withdraw from northern Albania. The
treaty, however, left large areas with majority Albanian populations,
notably Kosovo and western Macedonia, outside the new state and failed to
solve the region's problems due to a major part of the population having
become Muslim.

Territorial disputes have divided the Albanians and Serbs since the Middle
Ages, but none more so than the clash over the Kosovo region. Serbs consider
Kosovo their Holy Land. They argue that their ancestors settled in the
region during the seventh century, that medieval Serbian kings were crowned
there, and that the Serbs' greatest medieval ruler, Stefan Dusan,
established the seat of his empire for a time near Prizren in the
mid-fourteenth century. More important, numerous Serbian Orthodox shrines,
including the patriarchate of the Serbian Orthodox Church, are located in
Kosovo. The key event in the Serbs' national mythology, the defeat of their
forces by the Ottoman Turks, took place at Kosovo Polje in 1389. For their
part, the Muslim Albanians claim the land based on the argument that they
are the descendants of the ancient Illyrians, the indigenous people of the
region, and have been there since before the first Serb ever set foot in the
Balkans. Although the Muslim Albanians have historical traditions similar to
the Serbs', they claim their land in the name of Islam, since their
Christian ancestors had lived there since centuries before the advent of the
Jihad into the Balkans. Finally, Albanians also claim Kosovo using the same
argument.

Jihadi attempts to build an anti-Western alliance using Communists as their
fellow travelers

The politics of Albania was under the shadow of Communism from 1945 up to
1990. This brought an additional factor in the Muslim Christian struggle,
that was going on since the Ottoman imposed Islam on the Balkans. The fall
of Communism, has made the Communists bitter enemies of America and the
West. They find common cause in their anti-Americanism with the Muslims who
hate everything that is non-Muslim. The Muslims hated Communism as well and
brought down the Communist regime in Afghanistan, in which they were helped
by the USA and the West, but now with Communism, down and out, the Muslims
have made an opportunist Alliance with the Communists against the USA and
the Western world. The Muslims show themselves as being poor and that
terrorism is a weapon of the poor and the weak. Far from it terrorism is a
weapon of the demented Muslim mind – be they rich or poor. – the common
factor is that they are all motivated by evil intentions. The Muslim try to
get converts among all criminals – white black, brown or yellow. In the
West, they focus on criminals with an Afro-American ethnicity. Hence they
Maulavis are hyperactive in seeking converts among the jailbirds and
convicts of American prisons. The Muslim exploit the feeling of alienation
which some afro-American feel today (for legitimate reasons) and enroll them
into Islam’ s violent creed. With the criminal mind which the convict
already has, Islam murderous mentality makes a dangerous brew, from which we
have Richard Reids, and Jose Padillas. The same technique works in Albania
(and Chechnya), where former communists have become Islamic Terrorists of
today. Basayev of Chechnya was a member of the Komsomol (the Young Communist
League) in the 1980s, today he plans murder of school kids as the one at
Beslan. The Communist-Islamic alliance is going to be a major factor in the
war on terror. Only if we recognize this as an alliance of two evils, can we
beat it. Whatever merits the Communist creed may have in its egalitarianism,
an alliance with the beastlike Muslims is unpardonable. This makes those
communists who ally themselves with the Muslims, an enemy of Humankind,
punishable with the same token as would be the Jihadi terrorists. There is
no other way out.
LeNoir
2005-09-10 23:37:45 UTC
Permalink
Islam in Bosnia & Herzegovina

Europe's Endangered Species: Yugoslavia's Forgotten Muslims
A Survey of the Indigenous Muslims of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Past History- Current Situation - Future Prospects
by Saffet Abid

[According to a 1989 estimate, there were 5 million Muslims in Yugoslavia
(20% of the population). Of the six republics, Muslims are located in the
republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Albanian autonomous region of
Kosovo.

From early 6th century through the 9th century, the indigenous population of
southeastern Europe was host to multiple waves of migration of various
Slavic tribes. From the 12th through 14th centuries, those who chose not to
submit and convert to religious-political entities of either the Catholic
Church or Byzantine Orthodox Church were fortunate to escape to the
mountains of Bosnia-Herzegovina, where they encountered a people who were
known as 'Bogomil' by faith. The Catholic Church branded them as heretics
for their rejection of the Biblical concept of the Trinity among other
heresies.

Bosnia-Herzegovina came under Ottoman rule in 1492, the year Muslims lost
Spain. The Bogomils, seeing the merciful and tolerant nature of these
conquerors declared en masse their allegiance to the Ottoman Empire and
their acceptance of Islam. Contrary to some "historical writings," the
Ottomans did not force conversion by the sword. Instead, they guaranteed
religious freedom and simply undertook the administrative functions of the
conquered land. Such en masse acceptance of Islam by various populations was
not unusual in Muslim history.

Bosnia-Herzegovina was officially annexed in 1908 by the Austrio-Hungarian
empire. The Congress of Berlin Agreement stipulated that the Muslims of
Bosnia and Herzegovina were guaranteed the freedom to practice their
religion and the freedom to conduct their own religious affairs. Included in
the Agreement was the right to full autonomy over their religious
institutions, educational programs, religious endowments (Waqf), as well as
the right to implement the Islamic personal and family law.

Continue:
http://members.tripod.com/worldupdates/islamintheworld/id23.htm
Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
2005-09-11 00:35:35 UTC
Permalink
Young Muslim immigrant killers deported from Denmark

Two young criminals have been sentenced to deportation to Turkey, after
killing an Italian tourist in Copenhagen in 2003. Two teenagers were
sentenced to deportation by the Supreme Court on Tuesday, for murdering
an Italian tourist in Copenhagen's Nørrebro quarter in 2003. The cousins
Hizir and Ferhat Kilic were 16 and 17 years old when they assaulted and
stabbed a young Italian traveller, Antonio Currà, and left him to die on
the street.

The court sentenced them to 10 and 8 years in prison for the murder, and
to be deported to the country of their birth, Turkey, even though they
had lived almost all their lives in Denmark. 'The deportation is ten
times worse than the prison sentence,' Hizir Kilic told the court last
week. 'I won't be able to go to Turkey and survive.' The cousins'
defense attorneys tried in vain to convince the court's seven judges,
that the boys' young age and strong roots in Denmark should exempt them
from new laws, which allow courts to have criminal immigrants deported.

http://fjordman.blogspot.com/2005/03/young-muslim-immigrant-killers.html
Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
2005-09-11 00:40:08 UTC
Permalink
Helt i top ligger Sverige med 75 procent, efterfulgt af Holland med 72
procent og som nummer tre kommer Danmark, hvor 67 procent oplever en
stor modvilje mod muslimer.

(With help from a family elder, I'm fairly sure that says that 75
percent of Swedes hate the hell out of moslems and want them to get the
fuck out of Sweden immediately.)

http://www.kristeligt-dagblad.dk/danmark/artikel%3Aaid=237680
Shine that over here
2005-09-11 02:28:12 UTC
Permalink
Post by LeNoir
Islam in Bosnia & Herzegovina
Europe's Endangered Species: Yugoslavia's Forgotten Muslims
The Saga of Serbs’ Struggle against the Ottoman Jihad

Today Serbia, Bosnia and Albania are different nations, with Kosovo and
later perhaps Montenegro would become different nations. But there was a
time when all these people were one nation. There were differences of
language among them, but they were bound by one faith – that of the Eastern
Orthodox Church of Christianity. A cataclysmic event in the fourteenth
century was seared in the memory of all of them in which all of them paid
the price of preserving their national and cultural identity with blood and
death. While some survived to retain their original Eastern Orthodox
Christian character, some nations were not so fortunate. Centuries of
oppression by the Ottoman Turkish Jihadis have made them sterile to their
ancient history and has changed their character today. While they remain
European in their appearance and in some aspects of their culture, they have
become Islamized to propagate the faith of their erstwhile tormentors.

The four centuries of Ottoman tyranny has left a split in the cultural
character of the Balkan nations, a split along which there are bloody lines
of civil and military strife among the people, all of whom bore the brunt of
Muslim tyranny, but some of whom have forgotten that tyranny, by shifting
their loyalty to that of their tormentors and today carry forward the banner
of those tormentors, while fighting against those of their compatriots, who
have preserved an unbroken link with their original culture, religion and
nationality.

The same situation prevails in the Indian subcontinent where there is
perpetual conflict between Hindus and Muslims within India and the conflict
between India and Pakistan whose population is made up of Muslims who were
formerly Hindus and embraced Islam as a result of the tyranny of Muslim
rulers who had occupied the country for eight hundred years. In India as in
the Balkans, the period of Muslim occupation and tyranny was marked by long
drawn wars, and national struggles and the people finally threw off the
Muslim yoke, but in this process spread over many centuries, many of the
countrymen were forced by cruel circumstances of Muslim oppression as
Dhimmis (Zimmis) to give up their ancestral faith, culture and nationality
and go over to the invaders by embracing Islam and saving their life, limb
and the honor of their womenfolk from the evil intentions of those
schizophrenic savages - the Muslims. The irony is that these converts have
totally forgotten who they originally were and under what circumstances
their ancestors were forced to embrace that vile creed of Islam in a war
imposed on them by the Jihadis.

Origins of the Ottoman threat to Europe

In the early 1360s the Ottoman armies for the first time marched into Europe
by through Thrace and after a battle at a place named Gallipoli they
captured Adrianople (Edirne) and Philippopolis (Plovdiv) and forcing the
Byzantines to pay tribute. In 1366 the count Amadeus VI of Savoy (cousin to
John V Cantacuzenus, the Byzantine emperor) initiated a minor crusade to aid
the Byzantines. The count drove away the Turks from all of Europe except
Gallipoli. The very next year the Ottoman chieftain Murad attacked anew and
regained most of Thrace, including Adrianople.

In 1383 Murad declared himself sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Shortly
thereafter he again began a new campaign in Europe. Sofia, the Bulgarian
capitol, fell in 1385 and the city of Niš the year after. The Ottoman
Conquest halted in 1387 when the Serbs won the battle of Plocnik but two
years later Murad marched anew into the west.

The Battle of Kosovo


During the early 1370s Murad launched his forces deeper into Europe. At the
river Maritsa they encoutered a 70,000 man strong Serbian-Bulgarian army
under the Serbian king Vukasin. The ottoman army was smaller, but due to
tactics of subterfuge like attacking before dawn, and poisoning the horses
of the Serb-Bulgars they defeated the Serb-Bulgar army and king Vukasin
killed. Now that the Serbian coalition was weakened by such a blow Murad was
quick to advance further into Bulgaria and capture the cities of Dráma,
Kavála and Seres (Serrái). This is how the Ottomans snatched a victory from
the Serbs in the Battle of Kosovo but the sultan Murad himself was killed by
the valiant Serb warrior Miloš Kobilic.

To understand this battle in the context of Serbia, one must look back to
the 14th century when Kosovo was the center of the Serbian empire and site
of its most sacred churches and monasteries. In 1389, the Serbs lost the
land to the Ottoman Turks in a decisive battle fought in Kosovo Polje, the
Field of Blackbirds. The Battle of Kosovo is an event entrenched in the
Serbian Croatian (and all southern Slav) consciousness, uniting all Serbs
who treasure Kosovo as their Jerusalem, their holy land.

After this battle, what is Kosovo and Albania today was occupied by the
Ottomans who unleashed a merciless tyranny on the people of these lands.
Over the next 500 years, the Ottomans forcibly converted many Albanians to
Islam and once the entire population was converted, they forced these novice
Muslim Albanians to leave their homeland to settle in Kosovo to alter the
demographic balance in favor of Muslims and make the ethnic Christian Serbs
a minority. By the time the Serbs reclaimed Kosovo in the Balkans Wars of
1912 to 1913, ethnic Muslim Albanian converts made up a significant portion
of the population. And by 1950 they became a majority as their birth rate
boomed and Serbs continued to migrate north towards the Christian majority
lands. Today, 1.8 million Muslim Albanians outnumber Christian Serbs nine to
one in Kosovo – a fact that combined with events of recent history give an
opportunity for Albanians to proclaim Kosovo as their land.

Beyazid the Lightning Bolt’s revenge against the Serbs for his father’s
death in the Battle of Kosovo

Beyazid I succeeded to the sultanship upon the death of his father Murad in
the battle of Kosovo. In a rage over the attack, he ordered all Serbian
captives killed; Beyazid became known as Yildirim, the lightning bolt, for
his temperament. He conquered most of Bulgaria and northern Greece in
1389-1395 and laid siege on Constantinople in 1391-1398. On September 25,
1396 at the Battle of Nicopolis, his forces met the Venetian-Hungarian army
along with the Frankish knights led by king Sigismund of Hungary. The
Ottomans used their tactics of subterfuge by feigning to negotiate with the
Bulgarians and the Frankish knights and tricked them into a trap and won
this war. After which he signed a peace treaty with Hungary. Beyazid then
turned his attention to the east, conquering the Turkish emirate of Karaman
in 1397. This emirate was a remnant of the Seljuks whom the Ottoman had
displaced. This emirate was an ally of the Byzantine empire and an enemy of
the Ottoman power


Lessons from the Battle of Nicopolis

At Nicopolis, the Turks used techniques of hoodwinking the Bulgarians and
the French Knights into feigned negotiations, luring them into a tap and
then slaughtering them mercilessly. These are techniques that are still used
by the Jihadis in waving white flags and then gunning down the American
marines in Iraq, or of using women and children as human shields to act as
cover for the suicide bombers in Israel. The Jihadis still use foul means
which they used against the French Knights at Nicopolis. The knights, drawn
from all over Europe, had gone into battle assuming that they faced a
fierce, but honorable enemy. But with the massacre of the prisoners of war
the Europeans were reminded in 1396 at Nicopolis that they could henceforth
expect no mercy if captured by the invading Muslims, and thousands were to
meet their end in this brutal way. At Nicopolis thousands of Christian
soldiers who had laid down their weapons were slaughtered in a bloodthirsty
orgy lasting several hours after the battle had ended. The opening of
negotiations was normally used to end hostilities or to stop hostilities
from taking place. But with the subterfuge used at Nicopolis, with
devastating effect, taught the Europeans that the Muslims were never to be
trusted. That the Muslims by instinct were a dishonorable people.

The Mongol Timurid Attack on Ottomans

Around 1400 the Mongol leader Timur Lenk entered the Middle East. Timur Lenk
pillaged a few villages in eastern Anatolia and the conflict with the
Ottoman Empire exposed the soft underbelly of the Ottomans . In August, 1400
Timur and his horde burned the town of Sivas to the ground and advanced into
the interior. The war culminated at the Battle of Ankara in July, 1402.
Timur won, captured Beyazid, and was free to raid and pillage Anatolia.
Beyazid died in captivity in 1403. Al;though nominally Muslims, the Mongols
sacked many Ottoman cities and burned down Mosques to the ground in addition
to their mass slaughter of the Turkish civilian population. The Mongols
under Timur carried forward the tradition of Hulagu Khan’s sack of Baghdad
two centuries earlier in 1258.

After the defeat at Ankara followed a time of total chaos in the Empire.
Mongols roamed free in Anatolia and the political power of the sultan was
broken. After Beyazid was captured his remaining sons, Suleiman Çelebi, Isa
Çelebi, Mehmed Çelebi, and Mûsa fought each other in what became known as
the Ottoman Interregnum.

Of these sons, Mehmed Çelebi stood as victor in 1413 he crowned himself in
Edirne (Adrianople) as Mehmed I. His was the duty to restore the Ottoman
Empire to its former glory. The Empire had suffered hard from the
Interregnum; the Mongols were still at large in the east, even though Timur
Lenk had died in 1405; many of the Christian kingdoms of the Balkans had
broken free of Ottoman control; and the land, especially Anatolia, had
suffered hard from the war.

During his reign, Mehmed moved the capitol from Bursa to Adrianople
(Edirne), reinforced control over Bulgaria and Serbia, drove the Mongols
from Anatolia and assaulted Albania, Cilicia, the Turkish emirate of Candar
and Byzantine controlled areas in southern Greece.

Ottomans war with Venice

When Mehmed died in 1421, one of his sons, Murad, became sultan. Murad spent
his early years on the throne disposing off rivals and rebellions, most
notably the revolts of the Serbs. In 1423 he paid a short visit to
Constantinople, laid siege on it for a couple of months and forced the
Byzantines to pay additional tribute.

In 1423 the first regular Jihad against Venice (Italy) began. During Murad's
siege of Constantinople, the Byzantine Emperor's control over the Greek
city-states was weakened. Since Murad II had been on peaceful terms with
Venice the inhabitants of Constantinople requested, Venetian troops to take
control of the city of Salonika (Thessaloniki). But the Ottoman army that
laid siege to the city seized this opportunity of troop movement and killed
several Venetian soldiers in cold blood. The Venetians deemed the act in
contravention with their peace treaty with the Ottomans and declared full
war.

Murad acted swift, raised the siege of Constantinople and sent his armies to
Salonika. The Venetians had gained reinforcements by sea but when the
Ottomans stormed the city the outcome was given and the Venetians fled to
their ships. But when the Turks entered and plundered the city the Venetian
fleet suddenly started bombarding the city from the sea-side. The Ottomans
fled and the fleet was able to hold off the Ottomans until new Venetian
reinforcements could arrive to recapture the city. The outcome of the Battle
of Salonika was a setback for Murad and when Serbia and Hungary allied
themselves with Venice, the young sultan was involved in one of the Ottoman
Empire's worst conflicts ever, with all odds against it. Pope Martin V
encouraged other Christian states to join the war against the Ottomans, in
answer to the Pope’s call Austria sent troops to the Balkans. This defeat
was a setback for the Jihad.

Renewed War in the Balkans

The war in the Balkans began as the Ottoman army moved to recapture
Wallachia, which the Ottomans had lost to Mircea cel Batran during the
Interregnum and that now was an Hungarian vassal state. As the Ottoman army
entered Wallachia, the Serbs started attacking Bulgaria and, at the same
time, urged by the Pope, the Anatolian emirate of Karaman attacked the
Empire from the back. Murad had to split his army. The main force went to
defend Sofia and the reserves had to be called to Anatolia. The remaining
Ottoman troops in Wallachia were crushed by the Hungarian army that was now
moving south into Bulgaria where the Serbian and Ottoman armies battled each
other. The Serbs were defeated and the Ottomans turned to face the
Hungarians who fled back into Wallachia when they realized they were unable
to attack the Ottomans from the back. Murad fortified his borders against
Serbia and Hungary but did not try to retake Wallachia, instead he sent his
armies to Anatolia where they defeated the Emirate of Karaman in 1428.

In 1430 a large Ottoman fleet attacked Salonika by surprise. The Venetians
signed a peace treaty in 1432. The treaty gave the Ottomans the city of
Salonika and the surrounding land. The war between Serbia-Hungary and the
Ottoman Empire continued in 1441 when the Holy Roman Empire, Poland,
Albania, and the emirates Candar and Karaman intervened against the
Ottomans. Niš and Sofia fell to the Christians in 1443 and the year after
the Ottomans suffered a major defeat in the Battle of Jalowaz. July 12, 1444
Murad signed a treaty that officially gave Wallachia and the Bulgarian
province of Varna to Hungary, western Bulgaria (including Sofia) to Serbia
and forced Murad to abdicate in favor of his twelve-year-old son Mehmed.
Later the same year the Christians violated the peace treaty and attacked
anew. In November 11, 1444, Murad defeated the Polish-Hungarian army of
Janos Hunyadi at the Battle of Varna.

Murad was reinstated with the help of the Janissaries in 1446. Another peace
treaty was signed in 1448 giving the Empire Wallachia and Bulgaria and a
part of Albania. After the Balkan front was secured, Murad turned east and
defeated Timur Lenk's son, Shah Rokh, and the emirates of Candar and Karamn
in Anatolia. He died in the winter 1450-1451 in Edirne. Some have it that he
was wounded in a battle against Skanderbeg's Albanian guerilla.

Mehmed the Conqueror

Many doubted the young Mehmed II when he became sultan (again) following his
father's death. But by conquering and annexing the emirate of Karaman
(May-June, 1451) and by renewing the peace treaties with Venice (September
10) and Hungary (November 20) he proved his skills both on the military and
the political front and was soon accepted by the noble class of the Ottoman
court. Although, when he in 1452 proposed to attack Constantinople most of
the divan, and especially the Grand Vizier, Kandarli Halil, was against it
and critized the sultan for being too rash and overconfident in his
abilities.

On April 15, 1452, Mehmed ordered the construction of a castle on the shore
of the Bosphorus. It was completed on August 31 and was named the Rumeli
Hiskari (the European Castle). In September, Mehmed began mobilizing his
troops, setting up a large camp surrounding the city. On March 3, 1453, he
presented the Byzantine emperor Constantine XI with an ultimatum, but the
emperor declined to surrender the city. The Siege of Constantinople began on
April 6 and lasted for almost three months. On May 29 the city was finally
captured. Mehmed had the city rebuilt as his new capital, turning Hagia
Sophia into a mosque and constructing the Topkapi Palace in 1462.

When Constantinople was captured and the Byzantine Empire extinguished,
Mehmed turned south to Morea (Pelleponessos) where a last Greek kingdom
still remained in Christian hands, and west to the Balkans. In 1456 Mehmed
laid siege to Belgrade. On August 13 the Janissaries advanced into the city
but were ambushed and fled. Mehmed never succeded in taking Belgrade. Mehmed
entered Athens in 1460, until then ruled by emperor Constantine's two
brothers, Thomas and Demetrios. The following year Mehmed launched a
campaign into Anatolia defeating Sinope and Armenia under Uzun Hasan before
capturing the Empire of Trebizond August 15, 1461.

The European Counterattack on the Ottoman Jiha and the Serbian Struggle for
independence

The Ottoman Empire failed to keep up technologically with its European
rivals, especially Russia. It suffered a huge naval loss at the Battle of
Lepanto in 1571. After its defeat at the Battle of Vienna in 1683, the
Ottoman Empire began a long decline, culminating in the defeat of the empire
by the Allies in World War I. After the great defeat of the Ottomans at
Vienna, Austria, Prince Eugene of Savoy lead Austrian forces to further
victories. By 1699, the whole of Hungary had been conquered from the
Ottomans by the Austrians.

Fringe territories were lost to Russia in the north, but more importantly
the Empire began to fall behind technologically compared to the west. The
outside world was still mostly unaware of the extent of the Empire's decline
until the 1820s, when it became clear that the Ottoman armies had no way to
put down the Russian backed revolt in southern Greece. The great powers of
Europe decided to intervene to give Greece its independence.

Thus Greece became the first independent country created out of a section of
the Ottoman Empire. Russian aspirations for a section of the empire and
bases on Russia's southern flank provoked British fears over naval
domination of the Mediterranean and control of the land route to India.

When in 1853 Russia destroyed the entire Ottoman fleet at Sinop, Britain and
France concluded that armed intervention on the side of the Ottomans was the
only way to halt a massive Russian expansion, on the grounds that that the
Ottoman armies could do nothing to stop a Russian march on Constantinople.

Russia gives the last fatal blow to the Ottoman Jihad in Europe during the
Crimean War

The Crimean War illustrated how modern technology and superior weaponry were
the most important part of a modern army, and a part that the Ottoman Empire
was sorely lacking. While fighting alongside the British, French, and even
the Piedmontese, the Ottomans could see how far they had fallen behind.
While the industrial revolution had swept through western Europe, the
Ottoman Empire was still relying mainly on medieval technologies. The vast
empire had no railroads, and few telegraph lines. It took days before the
major naval defeat at Sinope was learned of in the capital. The poor
communications made it very difficult for Constantinople to control its
provinces. Thus the provinces in the Balkans, Africa, and Asia became almost
autonomous. Serbia was now an independent nation in all but name, paying
only token tribute to the Sultan. Most of the other provinces also paid only
fractions of the tribute required by law. Even the areas under the Sultan's
direct control had an outdated and corrupt tax system, drastically depleting
revenues. The disorganization and corruption permeating the nation also
discouraged trade, hurting both itself and its relations with other nations.
Compared to any other European power the Ottoman empire also had virtually
no industry, and its raw materials were not being harvested. It is not
surprising then that at the mid point of the 19th century the Ottoman Empire
was at the mercy of the Russians until outside forces intervened.

Things began to change after the Crimean war. The western powers had
invested a great deal of resources in the Crimean war and they did not wish
to come to the aid of the faltering Empire against a fellow European
Christian power. Thus the Ottoman Empire was invaded by British, French, and
Austrian businessmen and administrators who came to reform and rebuild the
economy. But the economy went downhill.

To overcome the economic crisis the Ottomans tried to initiate measures to
prevent an economic collapse throughout the empire by increasing the Jaziya
tax on non-Muslims. This touched off a revolt in Herzegovina. The revolt in
Herzegovina, quickly spread to Bosnia and then Bulgaria. Soon Serbian armies
also entered the war against the Turks. These revolts were the first test of
the new Ottoman armies. Even though they were not up to western European
standards the army fought effectively and brutally, and with mass slaughter
of the Serbs, the Ottomans again re-established their control. Soon the
Balkan rebellions were beginning to falter. In Europe, however, a new
problem was developing. The papers of Russia were filled with reports of
Turkish soldiers killing thousands of Slavs. Soon more than Russian
propaganda was moving southwards and a new Russo-Turkish war had begun.

Despite fighting better than they ever had before the advanced Ottoman
armies still were not equal to the Russian forces. This time there was no
help from abroad, in truth many European nations supported the Russian war,
as long as it did not get too close to Constantinople. Ten and a half months
later when the war had ended the age of Ottoman domination over the Balkans
was over. The Ottomans had fought well, the new navy of Ironclads had won
the battle for the Black Sea, and Russian advances in the Caucasus had been
kept minimal. In the Balkans, however, the Russian army, supported by
rebels, had pushed the Ottoman army out of Bulgaria, Walachia, Romania, and
much of East Rumelia and by the end of the war the artillery firing in
Thrace could be heard in Constantinople.

In response to the Russian proximity to the straits the British, against the
wishes of the Sultan, intervened in the war. A large task force representing
British naval supremacy entered the straits of Marmara and anchored in view
of both the royal palace and the Russian army. The British may have saved
the Ottoman empire once again, but it ended the rosy relations between the
two powers that had endured since the Crimean War. Looking at the prospect
of a British entry into the war the Russians decided to settle the dispute.
The treaty of San Stephano gave Romania and Montenegro their independence,
Serbia and Russia each received extra territory, Austria was given control
over Bosnia, and Bulgaria was given almost complete autonomy.

The autocratic Sultans of the Ottoman Empire had remained unchanged in
centuries, while the rest of the world slowly became more democratic and
liberal. The loss of nearly a quarter of the Empire's territory added to the
already existing economic problems to make a situation ripe for revolution.
The situation was especially dangerous in Constantinople, which contained
thousands of refugees fleeing the Balkans. A number of small coups broke
out, trying to overthrow the Sultan. None of them were well organized or
even remotely successful, but they filled Abd-ul-Hamid II with a paranoia
that lead to a self-imposed isolation in the palace of Yildiz. The entire
Ottoman Empire was built around the Sultan, but this Sultan never left his
palace and would only see a few trusted advisors. Unlike in the other states
of Europe, such as Germany, where a weak ruler could be made up for by a
powerful Prime Minister, there was no one who could make up for a weak
Sultan. While in his self-imposed exile the Sultan's Empire continued to
fall apart. Egypt had long been only loosely connected to the Ottoman Empire
and in 1882 the British incorporated it into their empire to protect the
Suez canal. In 1896 Crete revolted and received aid from the Greeks. This
soon lead to a war between the Ottoman Empire and its former province. For
the first time in centuries the Ottoman Empire won a war unaided. Greece was
invaded from the North and the Ottoman armies marched south as far as
Thermopylae before King George I of Greece agreed to an armistice. Greece
lost some of Macedonia, and had to pay an indemnity to Turkey. Crete was,
however, given almost complete autonomy to appease Britain and Russia who
did not want to see its Christian inhabitants returned to the Turks.

The military victory did nothing to stop the rise of revolutionary
sentiments. In 1902 a meeting in Paris brought together the leadership of
the "Young Turks" - a group, mainly made of students, who were fervent
Turkish nationalists wishing to do away with the archaic Empire. In
Bulgaria, Serbia and Macedonia nationalist freedom fighters started bombing
Ottoman banks and government buildings demanding total independence. The two
rebellions eventually joined in 1908 when an army regiment stationed in
Macedonia rebelled and fled into the hills. It was joined by Macedonian
rebels as well as large numbers of Young Turks. This group called itself the
Committee of Union and Progress (CUP). Soon other regiments in Bulgaria and
Rumelia mutinied as did many of the Anatolian soldiers sent in to end the
rebellion. Abd-ul-Hamid had no choice but to give into the revolutionaries'
demands. A constitution was adopted and a parliament created, Abd-ul-Hamid
was now the leader of an Ottoman constitutional monarchy. Soon after the
first election, which CUP won easily, there was a counter coup by the more
conservative military officers. The coup failed to destroy the new
government, mainly due to the skill of an unknown Adjutant-Major named
Mustafa Kemal. When the liberals discovered that the Sultan had aided the
coup they decided that he must go. Thus a fetva was issued and Abd-ul-Hamid
II's long reign was at an end.

Final Defeat of the Ottoman Jihad in Europe

Italy declared war on the Empire on September 29, 1911, demanding the
turnover of Tripoli and Cyrenaica. When the empire did not respond, Italian
forces took those areas on that November 5 (this act was confirmed by an act
of the Italian Parliament on February 25, 1912). Three years later on
November 5, 1914 the United Kingdom annexed Cyprus, and together with France
declared war on the Ottoman empire.

The final end to the aged and crippled empire came in the First World War.
Close relations with Germany and the continued enmity towards Russia pushed
the empire into joining the Central Powers. The British supported revolt of
the Arabs, who lead by T. E. Lawrence defeated the Ottoman forces in the
Middle East. At the end of the war the Ottoman government collapsed
completely and the empire was divided amongst the victorious powers. France
and Britain got most of the Middle East while Italy and Greece were given
much of Anatolia. At the same time an independent Armenian state was
established in eastern Turkey, and an autonomous Kurdish area was also
created. The Serbs and Croats meanwhile brought together all the Southern
Slavs to form a single nation named Yugoslavia.

But now there was an additional factors to account for. Amidst the Slavs
there were many who had converted to Islam during the intervening five
centuries of the Ottoman Jihad in Europe. These converts did not fully
identify with the independence of their homeland from Turkish rule. Many of
them secretly plotted for Turkish rule to return. And when this seemed
impossible they nurtured within themselves the notion that as Muslims
(although Slavs), they were a distinct nation. This feeling was not erased
by the six decades of Communist rule under Marshal Tito (the Croatian
Strongman who held Yugoslavia together). The Muslim Slavs of
Bosnia-Herzegovina and the Muslims Illyrians of Albania and Kosovo fomented
a rebellion that broke into an insurrections against the Slves (Serbs and
Croats) to break away and form separate Muslim nations. It is just a matter
of time till they declare themselves to be “Islamic Republics” of Albania,
Kosovo and Bosnia. The Slavs were forced into a defensive war to preserve
the unity of their nations.

Solobodan Milosevic represents the national aspirations of all the Southern
Slavs

Solobodan Milosevic represents the national aspirations of all the Southern
Slavs, Serbs, Croats, Montenegrins, to reverse the historical wrongs done to
their nation by the Ottoman Jihadis. In the campaigns that were described as
ethnic cleansing, were those that followed the age old European Christian
tradition of remaining steadfast in face of a beastly Muslim attack,
occupation, tyranny. The European Christians were first beaten back and
bewildered when they first encountered the Muslim Jihad first in
Mesopotamia, when the Muslims overran Jerusalem, Cesaria, Damascus. The
subterfuge in war of Muslim soldiers dressing up as women and attacking the
bemused Christian Byzantine soldiers at the battle of Hieryomak (Al Yarmuk),
followed by the mass slaughter of the civilian population especially at
Cesaria, so seared the memory of the Byzantine Christians that they took
some time to find their feet.

This was so, since in no time in Human history had any invader been so
inhuman, like the Muslims. But once the Byzantine Christians had gauged
their adversary as a sub-human schizophrenic savages that they were, the
Christians returned every barbarity with equally fierce resistance. The same
was true for the Spanish Christians (Visigoths) who were first overrun by
the Moors in 711. After the subterfuge they saw the battle of Guadelete in
Southern Spain, and the grisly sight of the head of their King Roederic
(Rodrigo) being stuck on a spear and paraded before the Christian soldiers
to break their spirit, the Spanish too learnt the kind of beastly enemy they
faced in the Muslims. And they returned the favour to the Muslims in equal
measure in the Reconquista and the Inquisition. Were a result of this
unnervingly brutal experience at the hands of the beastly Jihadis. Those who
did not learn this lesson were to be extinct as were the Christians of North
Arabia, Sinai, Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Anatolia (Turkey), North Africa,
Nubia, (North Sudan), as also the Zoroastrians of Iran, Baluchistan,
Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, the Buddhists of Afghanstan, Chinese
Turkestan (Xinkiang), Kazakastan, the Hindus of Pakistan, Bangladesh,
Kashmir, the nature and idol worshipping Arabs of Saudi Arabia, and many
other unnamed people who are extinct today and whose descendants survivors
as robots trapped in the mental prison of Islam.

The Serbs under Milosevic, only tried to reclaim what was theirs in the only
way possible with the Muslim, with that of blood and death. The Muslim
understand no other language. If humanity and our civilization is to be
emancipated from the Muslim threat, then the only way out is to match and
outmatch the Muslims at their gameplan, in their methods of war, in their
cruelty. pervasiveness, persistence, foresight, deception, subterfuge, hate
for the adversary and all other departments of the war. We cannot fault the
Serbs for what those with a faint heart, or those whit a sneaking sympathy
of the Muslims, or those who nurture paranoid fright of the Muslims decry
and moan as “Ethnic Cleansing of the Muslims”

Islam, Fanatic Islam and Islamic Terrorism

Today many the world over are innocent of how Islam was founded, how it grew
and what Islam implies for the future of Humankind. So there are endless
debates that Islam is a religion of peace, that all Muslims are not
fanatical, and that we need to differentiate between, Muslims and
terrorists. The reading of the story of Islam so far should be enough to
dispel the notion that Islam differs from Islamic fanaticism. Islam is
Fanaticism, or that Islam is a religion of peace and that the Terrorists
have hijacked a peaceful religion. No it is Islam which given birth to
Terrorism, which started from the evil mind of its founder Mohammed (yimach
shmo ve-zichro - may his name and memory be obliterated) and has filtered
down to the last follower (Muslim) today.

Mohammed (yimach shmo ve-zichro - may his name and memory be obliterated) a
shrewd man knew that there was always a danger of Muslims deserting Islam
and reverting to some other less blood-thirsty religion, so he made it a
capital offense for anyone leaving Islam, having once accepted it. A Murtad
(Muslim Apostate) has to be killed, and it is the duty of a Muslim to kill
any other Muslim who leaves Islam. There can also never ever be any
discussion on the murderous commands of the Quran, since it is the word of
god, or so Mohammed (yimach shmo ve-zichro - may his name and memory be
obliterated)told his followers. To be doubly sure that his flock remains
together in its murderous ken (prison), he decreed that it was compulsory
for all Muslims to come together and pray five times during the day. So
there was no chance for his followers to leave Islam and emancipate
themselves. Getting into Islam was a one way street. Islam was a dead end,
where you could enter, (in fact you were forced to enter at the pain of
death) , but could never leave, since you would be killed. In fact such was
the indoctrination and mass hysteria that Mohammed (yimach shmo ve-zichro -
may his name and memory be obliterated) started, that in a generation or so,
the new converts forgot that they were not Muslims, and in fact in North
Africa, they even forgot that they were not Arabs. This sealed the fate of
all those who were forced to embrace Islam from ever becoming decent
thinking humans ever again. (sigh).


Only the total destruction of non-Muslim heritage and wholesale slaughter of
non-Muslims got the Muslims Victory

With every Muslim military victory, there was not just a change of ruler,
but a wholesale slaughter of those who refused to convert or pay Jaziya.
There was also a total destruction of the pre-Islamic culture, educational
institution, libraries, he planned and deliberately implemented slaughter of
the priestly and warrior class. This was done to enfeeble the conquered
populace so much that they would forget who they were their national and
cultural identity and be compelled to become Muslims. This was never known
to the human race, with any other conqueror, like Alexander, Julius Caesar,
Hannibal, or even those who came after the Muslims like the British
Colonialists, or the Spanish Conquistadors. Yes the Spanish Conquistadors
were ruthless, but in spite of all they did to he native Americans, the
naïve Americans still have preserved their memory of they being a people
different from the Spanish Conquistadors.

Ask any Egyptian who he is, he will say he is an Arab, were the Pharaohs
Arabs? Were the builders of the Pyramids, Arab? Ask any Libyan, Sudanese,
Algerian, Tunisian, Somalian, who he is he will say he is an Arab. These are
people, whom the conquering Muslim Arab, so Arabized that they have
forgotten who they are, their national identities have completely been
submerged into the Arab Muslim Ummah, This has not happened with the native
Americans or the Maoris or the Africans, in spite of the fact that apartheid
was practiced in South Africa. The Arabs as conquers totally brainwashed at
the point of the sword all the conquered people and arabized them.

This is relevant today for those who seek to defeat Islam. If the Muslim
have to be saved from Islam, then it is not sufficient to conquer the Muslim
countries and try to being democracy to them, we have to de-Islamize these
people, if they are to be emancipated as civilized beings. Islam has
brutalized them and made them robotic followers and so robotic killers,
narrow-minded individuals, despotic rulers, and cruel sadists by following
the injunctions of the Instruction Manual of Terrorism (the Quran).
LeNoir
2005-09-10 23:38:04 UTC
Permalink
Islam in Africa

ISLAM AND AFRICA
by Prof. A. Rahman I. Doi

[The famous Arab historian Ibn Khaldun says that the name Ifriqiya was given
after Ifriqos bin Qais bin Saifi, one of the Kings of Yemen. To Al-Bakri,
the boundries of Ifriqiya were Barga on the East and Tangier on the West,
which means that in addition to the Africa proper of the Romans, it included
Tripolitania, Numidia and Mauritania. Today, by the use of the word
Ifiriqiya or Africa, the Arabs as well as non-Arabs mean the entire
continent of Africa which includes North Africa (including the Maghrib),
East Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and South Africa. It was
significant that the first shelter of early Muslims was in Africa
(Abyssinia, 615 CE). By the time Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) began his mission,
the Egyptians and Syrians had partially severed their active link with the
Roman Empire.

When the Arab conquest began in 647 CE, the Exarch Gregory had already
denounced allegiance to Constantinople and had proclaimed himself as an
Emperor. In Egypt, the native Copts were instructed by their bishop in
Alexandria to offer no resistance to the Arab Muslims marching toward Egypt.
The first serious attempt to expand Islam in Africa is credited to 'Uqabah
(Okba) b. Nafi, who is revered to this day as the founder of Muslim Africa.
In most of the areas conquered, the former religions of those areas, whether
Christianity, zoroastrianism, Judaism or indigenous cults, continued to
survive, without generally any oppression for centuries after the conquest
by Muslim armies. Thus even in those areas where political authority was in
the hands of Muslims owing allegiance to the central power of the Caliphate
in Damascus or Baghdad, the actual Islamization of the population was
generally a fairly slow process of absorption.

Islam spread in North Africa with remarkable speed, and by the year 732
C.E., which marked the first centennial of Muhammed's death, his followers
were the masters of an empire greater than that of Rome at its Zenith, an
empire extending from the Bay of Biscay to the Indus and the confines of
China and from the Aral Sea to the lower contracts of the Nile. The name of
the Prophet, as Messenger of God along with the name of God [Allah] was
being called out five times a day from thousands of minarets scattered all
over North Africa, South-Western Europe, and Western and Central Asia.]

Continue:
http://members.tripod.com/worldupdates/islamintheworld/id25.htm
Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
2005-09-11 00:45:39 UTC
Permalink
Police in Kolkata said they were questioning two men arrested in
connection with distributing leaflets and raising money for an
organisation which had al-Qaeda as part of its name.

http://www.expressindia.com/messages.php?newsid=52929
LeNoir
2005-09-10 23:39:04 UTC
Permalink
Islam in West Africa

SPREAD OF ISLAM IN WEST AFRICA
by Prof. A. Rahman I. Doi

[The Muslim geographers and historians have provided excellent records of
Muslim rulers and peoples in Africa. Among them are Al-Khwarzimi, Ibn
Munabbah, Al-Masudi, Al-Bakri, Abul Fida, Yaqut, Ibn Batutah, Ibn Khaldun,
Ibn Fadlallah al-'Umari, Mahmud al-Kati, Ibn al Mukhtar and Abd al-Rahman
al-Sa'di. Islam reached the Savannah region in the 8th Century C.E., the
date the written history of West Africa begins. Islam was accepted as early
as 850 C.E. by the Dya'ogo dynasty of the Kingdom of Tekur. They were the
first African people who accepted Islam. Trade and commerce paved the way
for the introduction of new elements of material culture, and made possible
the intellectual development which naturally followed the introduction and
spread of literacy.

Eminent Arab historians and African scholars have written on the empires of
Ghana, Mali, Songhay, and Kanem Bornu. They document famous trade routes in
Africa - from Sijilmasa to Taghaza, Awdaghast, which led to the empire of
Ghana, and from Sijilmasa to Tuat, Gao and Timbikutu. Al-Bakri describes
Ghana as highly advanced and economically a prosperous country as early as
the eleventh century. He also discusses the influence of Islam in Mali in
the 13th century and describes the rule of Mansa Musa whose fame spread to
Sudan, North Africa and up to Europe.]

Continue:
http://members.tripod.com/worldupdates/islamintheworld/id26.htm
Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
2005-09-11 00:51:20 UTC
Permalink
[Padilla vs. Rumsfeld, conclusion]

The Congress of the United States, in the Authorization for
Use of Military Force Joint Resolution, provided the President
all powers necessary and appropriate to protect American citizens
from terrorist acts by those who attacked the United States on
September 11, 2001. As would be expected, and as the Supreme
Court has held, those powers include the power to detain
identified and committed enemies such as Padilla, who associated
with al Qaeda and the Taliban regime, who took up arms against
this Nation in its war against these enemies, and who entered the
United States for the avowed purpose of further prosecuting that
war by attacking American citizens and targets on our own soil -–
a power without which, Congress understood, the President could
well be unable to protect American citizens from the very kind of
savage attack that occurred four years ago almost to the day.

The detention of petitioner being fully authorized by Act of
Congress, the judgment of the district court that the detention
of petitioner by the President of the United States is without
support in law is hereby reversed.

REVERSED.

PDF of the opinion:

http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/padilla/padhnft90905opn4th.pdf
lanman
2005-09-11 04:21:37 UTC
Permalink
On Sun, 11 Sep 2005 00:51:20 GMT, Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
Post by Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
[Padilla vs. Rumsfeld, conclusion]
The Congress of the United States, in the Authorization for
Use of Military Force Joint Resolution, provided the President
all powers necessary and appropriate to protect American citizens
from terrorist acts by those who attacked the United States on
September 11, 2001. As would be expected, and as the Supreme
Court has held, those powers include the power to detain
identified and committed enemies such as Padilla, who associated
with al Qaeda and the Taliban regime, who took up arms against
this Nation in its war against these enemies, and who entered the
United States for the avowed purpose of further prosecuting that
war by attacking American citizens and targets on our own soil -–
a power without which, Congress understood, the President could
well be unable to protect American citizens from the very kind of
savage attack that occurred four years ago almost to the day.
The detention of petitioner being fully authorized by Act of
Congress, the judgment of the district court that the detention
of petitioner by the President of the United States is without
support in law is hereby reversed.
REVERSED.
http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/padilla/padhnft90905opn4th.pdf
Cool.


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LeNoir
2005-09-10 23:39:21 UTC
Permalink
Islam in America

MUSLIMS IN THE AMERICAS BEFORE COLUMBUS
by Dr. Youssef Mroueh

Numerous evidence suggests that Muslims from Spain and West Africa arrived
in the Americas at least five centuries before Co1umbus. It is recorded, for
example that in the mid-tenth century during the rule of the Umayed Caliph
Abdul-Rahman III (929-961), Muslims of African origin sailed westward from
the Spanish port of Delba (Palos) into the "Ocean of darkness an fog." They
returned after a long absence with much booty from a "strange and curious
land." It is evident that people of Muslim origin are known to have
accompanied Columbus and subsequent Spanish explorers to the New World.

The last Muslim stronghold in Spain, Granada, fell to the Christians in 1492
CE, just before the Spanish inquisition was launched. To escape persecution,
many non-Christians fled or embraced Catholicism. At least two documents
imply the presence of Muslims in Spanish America before 1550 CE. Despite the
fact that a decree issued in 1539 CE, by Charles V, King of Spain, forbade
the grandsons of Muslims who had been burned at the stake to migrate to the
West Indies. This decree was ratified in 1543 CE, and an order for the
expulsion of all Muslims from overseas Spanish territories was subsequently
published. Many references on the Muslim arrival in the Americas are
available. They are summarized in the following notes:

Historic Documents

l. A Muslim historian and geographer Abul-Hassan Ali Ibn Al-Hussain
Al-Masudi (871 - 957 CE) wrote in his book 'Muruj Adh-dhahab wa Maadin
al-Jawhar' (The Meadows of Gold and Quarries of Jewels) that during the rule
of the Muslim Caliph of Spain Abdullah Ibn Muhammad (888 - 912 CE), a Muslim
navigator Khashkhash Ibn Saeed Ibn Aswad of Cordoba, Spain sailed from Delba
(Palos) in 889 CE, crossed the Atlantic, reached an unknown territory (Ard
Majhoola) and returned with fabulous treasures. In Al-Masudi's map of the
world there is a large area in the ocean of darkness and fog (the Atlantic
ocean) which he referred to as the unknown territory (the Americas).

2. A Muslim historian Abu Bakr Ibn Umar Al-Gutiyya narrated that during the
reign of the Muslim Caliph of Spain, Hisham II (976 -1009 CE), another
Muslim navigator Ibn Farrukh of Granada sailed from Kadesh (February 999 CE)
into the Atlantic, landed in Gando (Great Canary Islands) visiting King
Guanariga, and continued westward where he saw and named two islands,
Capraria and Pluitana. He arrived back in Spain in May 999 CE.

3. Columbus sailed from Palos (Delba), Spain. He was bound for Gomera
(Canary Islands) - Gomera is an Arabic word meaning 'small firebrand' -
there he fell in love with Beatriz Bobadilla, daughter of the first captain
General of the island (the family name Bobadilla is derived from the Arab
Islamic name Abouabdilla). Nevertheless, the Bobadilla clan was not easy to
ignore. Another Bobadilla (Francisco), later as the royal commissioner, put
Columbus in chains and transferred him from Santo Domingo back to Spain
(November 1500 CE). The Bobadilla family was related to Abbadid dynasty of
Seville (1031 -1091 CE).

On October 12, 1492 CE, Columbus landed on a little island in the Bahamas
that was called Guanahani by the natives. Renamed San Salvador by Columbus,
Guanahani is derived from Mandinka and modified Arabic words. Guana
(Ikhwana) means 'brothers' and Hani is an Arabic name. Therefore the
original name of the island was 'Hani Brothers.'

Continue:
http://members.tripod.com/worldupdates/islamintheworld/id27.htm
Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
2005-09-11 00:54:54 UTC
Permalink
WASHINGTON (CNN) -- In the first U.S. criminal indictment connected to
terrorist activities in Iraq, a federal grand jury in Washington on
Friday charged an Iraqi-born Dutch citizen with conspiring to kill U.S.
citizens.

The six-count indictment accuses 32-year-old Wesam Al Delaema, who was
born in Falluja, with intention to kill Americans there with roadside
bombs.

. . .

http://www.cnn.com/2005/LAW/09/09/iraq.charges/index.html
Shine that over here
2005-09-11 02:39:19 UTC
Permalink
Post by LeNoir
Islam in America
September 11th, 2001.
LeNoir
2005-09-10 23:39:32 UTC
Permalink
Islam in Japan

The first Muslim Japanese ever known are Mitsutaro Takaoka who converted to
Islam in 1909 and took the name Omar Yamaoka after making the pilgrimage to
Makkah and Bumpachiro Ariga, who about the same time went to India for
trading purposes and converted to Islam under the influence of local Muslims
there and subsequently took the name Ahmad Ariga. However, recent studies
have revealed that another Japanese known as Torajiro Yamada was probably
the first Japanese Muslim who visited Turkey out of sympathy for those who
died in the aftermath of the shipwreck of the "Ertugrul". He converted to
Islam there and took the name Abdul Khalil and probably made pilgrimage to
Makkah. The real Muslim community life however did not start until the
arrival of several hundred Turkoman, Uzbek, Tadjik, Kirghiz, Kazakh and
other Turko-Tatar Muslim refugees from central Asia and Russia in the wake
of the Bolshevik Revolution during World War I. These Muslims who were given
asylum in Japan settled in several main cities around Japan and formed small
Muslim communities. A number of Japanese converted to Islam through the
contact with these Muslims. With the formation of these small Muslim
communities several mosques have been built, the most important of them
being the Kobe Mosque built in 1935 (which is the only remaining mosque in
Japan nowadays) and the Tokyo Mosque built in 1938. One thing that should be
emphasized is that very little weight of Japanese Muslims was felt in
building these mosques and there have been no Japanese so far who played the
role of Imam of any of the mosques. During World War II, an "Islamic Boom"
was set in Japan by the military government through organisations and
research centers on Islam and the Muslim World. It is said that during this
period over 100 books and journals on Islam were published in Japan.
However, these organisations or research centers were in no way controlled
or run by the Muslims nor was their purpose the propagation of Islam
whatsoever. The mere purpose was to let the military be better equipped with
the necessary knowledge about Islam and Muslims since there were large
Muslim communities in the areas occupied in China and Southeast Asia by the
Japanese army. As a result, with the end of the war in 1945, these
organisations and research centers disappeared rapidly.

Continue:
http://members.tripod.com/worldupdates/islamintheworld/id28.htm
LeNoir
2005-09-10 23:41:25 UTC
Permalink
Islam Teaching Gaining Momentum in Austria

By Ahmed Al-Matboli, IOL Correspondent


VIENNA, June 26, 2005 (IslamOnline.net) - The teaching of Islam has been
gaining momentum in Austria since its introduction in the early 1980s, now
available through thousands of private and state schools as well as
academies across the European country.

"Islamic subjects were first taught in Austrian schools in 1982, where we
only had five teachers and around 200 students," Anas Shakfa, the chairman
of the umbrella Islamic Religious Authority (IRA), told IslamOnline.net
Sunday, June 26.

"Islam is now being taught by 300 teachers in some 1800 schools across the
country," he added.

Shakfa noted that students from other 1200 schools flock to Islam-teaching
schools to classes on the Muslim faith.

"We in the IRA have twelve schools teaching Islamic subject with the
assistance of 60 teachers."

The IRA, the official representative of the Muslim minority in Austria,
supervises the teaching of Islam in all Austrian schools.

Muslims, estimated at nearly half a million, make up some 6 per cent of
Austria's population.

Islam, which was recognized in 1912, is considered the second religion in
the country after Catholic Christianity.

Islamic Academy

In a new momentum to the teaching of Islam in the country, an Islamic
academy was inaugurated in September 1998 to qualify teachers involved in
teaching Islamic subjects.

Students mastering the Arabic and German languages study in the academy for
three years after finishing high school.

Others fluent in only one of the two languages must first go take a one-year
preparatory course.

Shakfa said the IRA has clinched an agreement with the official teachers'
academy to allow the Islamic academy students to take educational courses in
the state academy.

"So, our students take the state curricula in the state academy and study
Islamic subjects, humanities and languages in the Islamic academy," he told
IOL.

He said the Islamic academy prepares students to teach Islam at the primary
and elementary schools levels.

"The graduates get a certificate allowing them to work in all EU-member
states, except for Germany."

University Studies

The IRA chief said his umbrella group has been engaged in marathon talks
with the Vienna University and the ministry of education, science and
culture to reach an agreement on qualifying teachers of Islamic subjects.

The talks were crowned with an agreement on setting up an Islamic studies
department offering a two-year course for graduates of the Islamic academy.

The department, which will see the light next year, will give MA degrees to
graduates, he added.

The IRA will have the authority to choose the teaching staff and prepare
Arabic language and Islamic subjects courses.

In addition, the Austrian-Islamic council for education and culture obtained
a license from the education ministry to establish an Islamic institute.

The institute will teach the official Austrian curricula and the curricula
of the Egypt-based Al-Azhar, the highest seat of learning in the Sunni
world.

"It is a significant step to have the curricula of Al-Azhar being taught in
Austria," Abdul Fatah Bahariya, the head of the Austrian-Islamic council for
education and culture, told IOL.

Successful Integration

Bahariya praised the rising number of Islamic schools in Austria as a sign
of a successful integration story.

"Islamic schools could be a hub for successful integration making Muslims
fully aware of societal problems and appreciative of the climate of
tolerance and freedom in which they practice their religion."

Shakfa said the IRA received requests from Christian teachers for joint
classes prepared by Christian and Muslim teachers for Austrian students.

"This is a very important step and much better than subjective lessons given
about Islam, which might include misconceptions about Islam and Muslims."

Mosques in Austria have become a meeting point for peoples of different
faiths and backgrounds from across Europe, enhancing inter-faith dialogue
and disseminating true information about a much-stereotyped Islam.

In March, the Cultural League in Austria (Alte Schmiede) organized an
inter-faith forum in a bid to cement dialogue between Islam and the West.

The three-day forum showcased books of divergent ideologies reinforcing
common grounds between Islam and the West through out the centuries and how
they both helped enrich one another.

A law issued in 1867, which guaranteed respect for all religions, gave
Muslims the right to establish mosques and practice their religion in
Austria.

http://islamonline.net/English/News/2005-06/26/article02.shtml
Shine that over here
2005-09-11 02:41:03 UTC
Permalink
Post by LeNoir
Islam Teaching Gaining Momentum in Austria
Poland the Bulwark of Christendom “Propugnaculum Christianitatis”

During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the Christian inhabitants of
southeast Europe lived in perpetual fear of Muslim invasions. The
Mongol-Tartar raiding parties laid waste to the countryside, abducting
captives for slaves and ransom; while Ottoman Turkish occupation meant at
the least pillage, sacrilege and extortion. While for the Mongols-Tartars
the sole purpose of waging war was material gain, before they had succumbed
to Islam, the aim changed to imposition of Islam after the Mongol Khans
after Hulagu Khan embraced Islam. The Turks who has embraced Islam in the
10th century, expressly invaded the Byzantine Empire and later Europe with
the aim of converting the Europeans to Islam at the pain of death. The
Muslim invasion routes were through either the Danube Valley to the walls of
Vienna, or through the Moldavian plain and southern Poland. Much of the
Turkish effort was directed against Poland, whose heroic resistance earned
her the name "Propugnaculum Christianitatis" the bulwark of Christianity.

The Jihadis besiege Vienna but Polish Heroism saves the day

The Turks after overrunning Serbia, Croatia, Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary,
bnow lunged at the heart of Central by repeatedly attacking Cracow and
Vienna. They focused on Vienna as that was the major city, the capture of
which would open their advance into Poland and Germany. Sensing the danger,
in the winter of 1682-3, Poland, Prussia (Germany) and Austria came to an
agreement providing for joint action against a Turkish invasion and
promising relief in case of a direct attack on Vienna or Cracow. The threat
of Turkish attack could not have been more real. A Turkish army of over
140,000 men started marching north in March of 1683, and arrived before the
walls of Vienna on July 14, 1683.

Since about March the Turks were preparing for an attack on the Hapsburg
capital, Vienna, and were gathering their forces together rather rapidly. By
June, they had invaded Austria, and King Leopold and his court fled to
Passau. On July 14, the Turks reached Vienna. They laid siege to the great
city. One of the disadvantages that the Turks had was that they did not have
sufficient heavy artillery. The defenders fought bravely but their food
supply and their ammunition were growing low. The Turks had made some
breaches in the walls but their effort was hindered by the barricades
erected by the people of Vienna.

Earlier that year on March 31, 1683, King John III had signed the Treaty of
Warsaw with the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold. In this treaty, it was agreed to
come to one's aid if the Turks attacked either Krakow or Vienna. Following
his agreement in the treaty and the appeal of the pope, Sobieski marched to
Vienna with an army of about 30,000 men. Sobieski said that his purpose for
going to Vienna was "to proceed to the Holy War, and with God's help to give
back the old freedom to besieged Vienna, and thereby help wavering
Christendom."

Kara Mustapha Pasha lead an Ottoman force of 140,000 against Vienna,
defended by 11,000. The Viennese laid down the suburbs and prepared for a
siege; Emperor Leopold had moved to the western regions of his Habsburg
domains. While the siege (July 14th - Sept. 12th) made progress and the area
surrounding Vienna was subjected to raids, relief armies were gathered in
various regions of the Empire and in Poland (which had been a French ally
and thus a Habsburg enemy, but was drawn into the Habsburg camp by papal
diplomacy.


Vienna was a strong fortress, but by the end of August 1683, the city was in
mortal danger of collapsing to the Turkish attack. Food and ammunition were
inadequate, and on September 1, the Turks exploded a mine under the walls
and captured one part of it. Outside the walls however the outlook was
brighter. The defeat of a Turkish corps at Bisamberg allowed the
concentration of the allied armies northwest of Vienna. Most importantly
30,000 Poles under their warrior-king Jan Sobieski had arrived.

Sobieski, who already had a considerable reputation against the Turks,
assumed command. His plan was to force battle on the plain west of the city
and annihilate the Turkish army, thus breaking the siege. The Turkish
commander Kara Mustapha continued to focus much of his effort at capturing
the city, therefore at the start of the battle only part of his army was
prepared to meet the relief force. At four a.m. on the 12th of September
1683, the Austrians on the left wing moved forward and commenced battle, the
Germans in the left center soon joined them.

As the Turks were preparing to counterattack, the Polish infantry emerged on
the right wing clearing the foothills dominating the plain. By four p.m. the
cavalry had moved up and prepared to charge. At five p.m. Sobieski ordered
the charge. One German-Austrian and three Polish cavalry groups, 20,000 men
charged down hill, echelon after echelon, lead by King Jan Sobieski,
straight for the center of the Turkish camp. As the cavalry burst into the
Turkish lines, the garrison in the city attacked the Turkish rear. The
demoralized Turks and Tartars soon broke and ran, and the battle turned into
a route. At half past five Sobieski entered the Grand Viziers tent and the
siege of Vienna was broken.

The merciless slaughter of the Jihadis by the Husaria, which is Polish
armored cavalry saved Vienna

In this battle Sobieski completely routed the Jihadis with his Husaria,
which is Polish armored cavalry, alongside with the cooperation of all army,
played an important role in the victory. Sobieski with his Husaria charged
toward Kara Mustafa's headquarters and mercilessly slaughtered all the Turks
that he had at his mercy. Seeing this, Mustafa's army fled in panic. Even
so, the Turkish army suffered heavy losses. This victory freed Europe from
the Ottoman Turks and their invasions and secured Christianity as the main
religion in all of Europe.

The Turks lost about 15,000 men who constituted the cream of their cavalry
on the field, while the allies lost less then 4000 killed and wounded.
Vienna had been delivered in the nick of time, since earlier that same day
the Turks had exploded mines that had given them access to the city.

The Turks never recovered from the battle, while the Ottoman Empire survived
for another two hundred plus years, from here on out it was merely a holding
action. For Poland, this was her last great moment on centerstage when she
saved Europe from Islam.

After the Battle Jan Sobieski entered Vienna in glory. The King and his
Polish army had won lots of fame after their victory. Jan III Sobieski was
not only looked upon as the savior of Vienna, but as a savior of the whole
Europe from the Ottoman Turks

The defeat of the Jihadi Ottomans at Vienna in 1683, marked the turning of
the tide of the second Muslim invasion of Europe (The first being turned
back by Charles Martel at Poitiers in 732). The Republic of Venice declared
war on the Ottoman Empire in 1685; a Venetian force conquered Morea and
Attica, with Athens. The Imperial Austrian army also remained on the
offensive and gained ground; Buda was taken, after a siege, in 1686; in 1687
the Ottomans suffered another defeat at Mount Harsan near Mohacs, Belgrade
was temporarily taken (1688), but retaken by Ottoman forces in 1690; in 1691
Transylvania was secured by the Imperial Army. Then the Imperial forces were
placed under the command of Prince Eugene of Savoy; in 1697 he lead his
forces to victory in the Battle of Zenta; in 1699, the Peace of Karlowitz
(named Sremski Karlovci in Serbian, and Karloca in Hungarian) concluded the
war.

Legacy of the war against the Ottoman Jihadis

The Ottoman Empire ceded Hungary, including Transylvania, to the house of
Habsburg, Podolia to Poland and the Morea (Peloponnese) as well as border
territory in Dalmatia to Venice. The war laid open the weakness of the
Ottoman Empire; during the 17th century it would have to defend her vast
Empire in numerous wars to the gradual advance of the Western powers. In the
18th century, Russia, Britain and France not only sealed once and for all
the threat f Islam to Europe but also gave the final death blows to the
Ottoman Empire transforming it from an existential threat to Western
Civilization into being "The Sick man of the Bosphorus" who existed till
1920 only due to the rivalry between the European powers mainly Russia,
Britain and France.


Complete rejection of the Enemy’s Outlook was an essential ingredient in
warfare

The reason why the Franks, the Spanish and the Austrians (as also the
Byzantines before them) could repel the Muslim invaders at different times
in history was that they had a complete disdain for the enemy’s outlook.
They looked upon the enemy as barbarians (which they in fact were). And with
this disdain for the enemy they went to battle. The battle was half won,
since it was already won in the mind. They never had the appeasement of the
enemy in their minds as had Chamberlain for Hitler or as have Jacques
Chirac,, Gerhard Schroeder and to an extent even Tony Blair and George Bush
(when he declares Islam to be religion of peace).. The franks the Spanish
and Austrians went to battle with a firm conviction that the enemy has to be
defeat and destroyed, if the civilized way of life had to survive.

A Forward policy necessary in battling Islam

With the battle already won in the mind due to a total contempt for the
enemy, the Franks, Spanish and Austrians, could follow a forward policy
while battling Islam. The enemy was given no quarter, and after the initial
Muslim attack, they did not wait for the Muslims to fall upon them. On the
contrary, they followed a forward policy of attacking the Muslims when they
least expected and when they were at a disadvantage. This was an important
reason for their success against the Muslims..

An Ideological battle with those committed to theology inspired warfare is
futile

The Franks, Spanish and Austrians (as also the Byzantines) could stand
against the Muslims with conviction, since they knew that it was futile to
try to negotiate with the Muslims (at least when the Muslims had the upper
hand in battle). The only language that the Muslim understood was that of
blood and death. In the annals of the Muslim attack on Christendom, there is
no mention of any Christian King surrendering himself to a Muslim conqueror
and embracing Islam as a price of his freedom. There were Christian Traitor
of course, who for the sake of petty gain, went over to the Muslims for
petty gain, (Count Julian of Visigothic Spain is one example). But they were
exceptions, that proved the rule to be otherwise. All Christian kings and
also the armies and the play population preferred fight or flight, rather
than surrender and the ignominy of conversion to Islam. It was only those
who were unfortunate enough to fall to the hand of the conquering Muslims
who had to submit to Islam at the point of the sword and became Muslims at
the pain of death.

Taking the war to the enemy’s civilian population was the trump card to a
lasting victory

Christianity was never spread at the point of the sword, and no conversion
were effected at the pain of death. But when the Muslim invaders were rolled
back after a few centuries of occupation, the Christian re-conquistadors
followed a pragmatic policy of taking the war to the civilian Muslim
population (many of who were originally Christian) to either embrace
Christianity, or leave the Christian lands or to be put to the sword. This
ruthless policy, ensured that there remained no hostile population in
Christian lands, who would betray the Christian army or in peacetimes
sabotage the nation by acting as a Muslim fifth column in Christendom. Today
the situation is reversed with the large and ever growing Muslim populations
in Europe and the USA. Today rulers have forgotten the enlightened policy of
our forebears of the days of the reconquista and the crusades. An enemy is
an enemy, regardless of whether he is in the armed forces of the enemy or is
loyal to the enemy by reason of being a co-religionist of the enemy. Thus an
enemy civilian is also an enemy. This is the harsh reality, that Americans
and Europeans need to face. If they refuse to face it, there would be many
more Theo Van Gough’s in the near future in Europe, Australia, USA and the
rest of the Western world. The fifth column that the Muslims populations in
the West are represent a heaven sent sanctuaries for the terrorists to whom
the ordinary Muslims are loyal. We need be under no delusion that the
Muslims in the West are loyal to the country in which they live. No way.
They are loyal to Islam and hence to Islamic terrorism. The Muslim in the
Wets are vipers whom the Western countries have chosen to nurture on their
bosom, a mistake that the enlightened kings of the yore did never make. The
argument today is that the world has changed, we no longer live in medieval
times. Yes sir you are right. But it is the Western world that has changed.
The Muslims still live in medieval times and nurture a blood feud with the
West. If this outlook is not recognized and countered with means that are
far more ruthless than the ruthlessness and cruelty that the Muslims embody,
there is a very dangerous future ahead for Western civilization. We hope
today’s Western leaders open their eyes to reality, before it is too late in
our battle against the Islamic Jihad.
LeNoir
2005-09-10 23:49:33 UTC
Permalink
Finding the Perfect Balance
An Italian Woman Discovers Islam

My journey to Islam began three years ago, and about eight months after the
beginning of this beautiful journey I found my true way in life by entering
the blessed religion of Islam, alhamdulillah.

Having lived the difficulties of a convert and having seen a lot of other
new converts or people who desire to convert to Islam, I thought about
writing down my story, with the purpose of making it somehow easier for the
brothers and sisters in humanity who whish to accept Islam as their way of
life.
More>
http://islamonline.net/english/journey/2004/11/jour02.shtml
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2005-09-11 02:42:44 UTC
Permalink
Post by LeNoir
Finding the Perfect Balance
An Italian Woman Discovers Islam
By the mid 7th century, after overrunning North Africa, the Arab Muslims
turned their attention towards the North Mediterranean coast in an effort to
invade the Byzantine Empire from the West. By then the Arabs, who already
controlled the North African coast and Spain, considered Sicily a highly
strategic step for their expansion towards the north of Italy and an advance
into Europe. The Arabs who had started developing pretensions to becoming a
naval power, sent a fleet to Sicily and conquered the undefended fortress of
Palermo in Sicily in 830. With Sicily as a base they started harassing the
mercantile shipping in the Mediterranean, and more importantly they tried
repeatedly to invade Italy from Sicily.

The Battle of Palermo

The Christian resistance began immediately to recapture the island of
Sicily. The Franks tried to take back the island in the 7th century, but
failed. By the 11th century, the baton of resistance to the Saracens was
taken up by the Normans. The Normans undertook an attempt to liberate Sicily
by sending in an expeditionary assault in 1068 with just sixty knights, but
with their shock tactics, they gave a stunning blow to the Arab chieftain
Ayub ibn Temim at the Battle of Misilmeri (then called by the Arabs Menzil
el Emir), outside Palermo. This was followed by the main Norman assault in
1071, when they attacked and defeated the Arabs at Palermo. This fortress
whose very name derived from the Arab Balarm - defines its origins as an
Arab city. Palermo, when it was an Arab emirate for five hundred years, was
described as "the city of the 300 mosques, very few of which survive today,
with most of them having been converted into Churches.

The Battle of Palermo stands as one of the most astounding Norman escapades
in Italy against the Muslims. It rivals the Battle of Hastings (1066) in
importance. Socially, the Normans' occupation of Arab Palermo was far more
significant than their conquest of Saxon London, as it brought Sicily back
into the European orbit, a development which eventually established an
Italianate presence in the central Mediterranean. The Normans had taken
Messina during an early morning battle in Spring 1061. In the ten years
since, they had sought to consolidate their control of Sicily and the
southern part of the Italian Peninsula, fighting the Arabs in a string of
skirmishes. At Palermo, the Arabs were again led by their wily and intrepid
commander Ayub ibn Temim and the Normans by a young and energetic leader
named Robert Guiscard de Hauteville and his younger brother, Roger de
Hauteville. But the Normans with their conquests in other parts of Europe,
notably England , where they fought the battle of hasting in 1066 and
defeated the Saxons, were chronically short of trained knights. (Indeed, it
would be years following the Battle of Palermo before they could wrest back
control of Enna, from the Muslims. Enna had been an Arab-Muslim stronghold
in east-central Sicily

In 1072 Palermo had something over a hundred thousand residents. On the
morning of 5 January, Robert's cavalry attacked the al Kasr district (high
ground near what became the cathedral, Piazza Vittoria and the Norman
Palace). Fighting was fierce, and penetrating the walls seemed like an
impossible feat. Leaving his brother, Roger, to maintain the attack on al
Kasr, Robert and some knights attacked al Khalesa, the administrative
district on the coast, built around the emir's fortress.

This was taken by nightfall, though most of the adjacent al Kasr district,
further inland, remained in Saracen hands. Nevertheless, a Saracen
delegation surrendered to the Normans the following morning. Specifically,
the Normans first entered al Khalesa over a wall near what is now the
Spasimo. (In a corner of this structure the vestiges of a eight-century
Mosque that the Normans changed into a church. The traces of this change can
be seen even today.) The ceremonial entry of the Norman Christians into
Palermo took place on 10 January, with a Greek Rite mass celebrated by the
Orthodox bishop Nicodemus of Palermo in the old cathedral (on the site of
the present one), hastily re-converted into a church from its use as a
mosque. Here was a historic juncture where Robert and Roger chose to defy
convention and their own Christian tradition. All mosques that had been
churches (before the Arabs' arrival two centuries earlier) were re-converted
into Churches. With the conquest of Palermo, the Normans had liberated only
a part of Sicily, the rest of the island still lay under Arab occupation.

But in spite of the Norman attack, the Arabs in Sicily were divided, and
taking advantage of the situation, Count Roger, after a series of campaigns,
subdued the rest of the island and brought it under Norman Rule. Count Roger
also invaded other islands to make sure his southern flank was secure from a
possible Arab attack, having reduced the Arabs to a state of vassalage and
releasing the foreign Christian slaves, he returned to Sicily without even
bothering to garrison his prize. In 1127, Roger II the son of Count Roger,
led a second invasion of Malta; having overrun the Island he placed it under
a more secure Norman domination under the charge of a Norman governor. He
also garrisoned with Norman soldiers the three castles then on the islands.
From about this period the Maltese moved back gradually into the European
orbit to which they had belonged for a five hundred years prior to the Arab
interlude.

Lessons from the Battle of Palermo

Sicily had been under Muslim occupation for nearly three centuries from 812
up to 1071. the population had been wholly converted to Islam, and there was
not a single church left standing. They had either been reduced to rubble or
had been converted into Mosques. When the Normans retook Sicily, they
reversed history in equal measure and with equal ruthlessness. After the
Norman liberation, there were no Muslim left in Sicily, Malta, Sardina and
any other surrounding islands that had been under Muslim occupation. This
ensured that the population forgot about the Islamic interlude. The Norman
acted as an exorcist to exorcize the influence of Islam on the population
and returned the lands to Christendom.

The Battle of Lepanto

Although Sicily was never directly threatened again, the shadow of the
Islamic Jihad loomed once again when the Ottoman Turks started moving into
the Mediterranean after 1500. With the fall of Constantinople in 1453, the
prospect of the conquest of Europe was reignited in Muslim hearts. This
prospect had been defeated at Poitiers, Palermo and had been rolled back by
the Reconquista in Spain. The Ottomans now moved toward Malta which had
remained a peaceful Christian bastion for four more centuries after its
liberation by the Normans in 1127. In the meanwhile Malta had become the
base for the Crusader knights of Malta and it played an important role as a
transit point for the crusaders to go to the holy land. Malta was a marked
fortress for the Muslims who bided their time to seek revenge when they
could again come within striking distance.

And so it s if to prove the point, the Turks launched two attacks against
the island in 1547, and again in 1551, 1565 till they were finally routed
decisively at the naval battle of Lepanto in 1571. The Turks had a policy of
ravaging the Maltese countryside they ignored the fortified towns, and
turned their attention to the island of Gozo and carried away the entire
Christian population into slavery, the children being brought up as Muslims
who were to be thrown into battle as suicide warriors named Janissaries
(from Jan = life and Nisar = given away). That same year the Turks drove the
Knights out of Tripoli. these attacks stung the Knights into feverish
activity to improve the islands' defenses in anticipation of another, and
possibly bigger, attack.

On the 18th May, 1565, the Ottoman Turks and their allies pitted 48,000 of
their best troops against the islands with the intention of invading them,
and afterwards to make a thrust into Southern Europe by way of Sicily and
Italy. Against them were drawn up some 8,000 men: 540 Knights; 4,000
Maltese; and the rest made up of Spanish and Italian mercenaries. Landing
unopposed, the first objective of the Turks was to secure a safe anchorage
for their large invasion fleet, and with that in mind, launched their attack
on St.Elmo. After a heroic resistance of thirty one days the fort succumbed
to the massive bombardment and continuous attacks of the Turks. After the
fort had been reduced, the Ottomans turned their to the two badly fortified
towns overlooking the harbour. Subjected to a ceaseless bombardment, and
repulsing attack; behind the crumbling walls, the Christian forces, against
all odds, kept the enemy at bay until a small relief force of some 8,000
troops arrived from Sicily (a smaller relief force of 600 men had previously
landed at about the time that St.Elmo had fallen). Totally demoralized, as
the Turks were, by losses from disease, fire and steel, added to the fact
that their supplies were running low, they were in no position to offer an
effective resistance, and the Turks retreated never again to attempt another
invasion in that part of the Mediterranean.

In 1571, Don John of Austria commanding the fleet of the Holy League, met
the Ottoman Turks in the waters at the mouth of the Gulf of Patros. Don John
of Austria met his fleet off Messina and saw that he had 300 ships, great
and small, under his command. The Pope himself had outfitted twelve galleys
and the depth of his war chest had paid for many more. Don John's eye must
have gazed with pride on the 80 galleys and 22 other ships that had been
provided by his half-brother Philip II of Spain. Each of these Spanish
galleys held a hundred soldiers on top of the rowers who propelled the ship
through the water and no less than 30,000 men in the service of Spain would
fight at Lepanto. The next largest contingent was that of Venice.

Thought they were no longer the dominating power of yesteryear, the
Venetians could still assemble a fleet of more than a hundred vessels
beneath the winged Lion of St. Mark standard. provided the technological
cutting edge that was to win the battle.

The Turkish fleet under the command of Ali Pasha had been reinforced by a
Calabrian traitor fisherman who had turned Moslem. His name was Uluch Ali
and he was now the Bey of Algiers, that notorious nest of the Muslim
corsairs feared by all Christian ships plying their trade in the
Mediterranean. Don John moved his force towards the anchorage of Lepanto
where he knew the Turks to be waiting and during the night of October 6th,
with a favourable wind behind him, Ali Pasha moved his fleet westward
towards the mouth of the Gulf of Patras and the approaching ships of the
Holy League.

The action that was to follow was the biggest naval engagement anywhere on
the globe till then. The Turks, initially arrayed in a giant crescent-shaped
formation, quickly separated into three sections also. The centre, under Ali
Pasha, pushed forward and the action opened when the cannon of Don John's
two centre galleasses (gunships) began to do great execution among Ali
Pasha's advancing ships. Seven or more Turkish galleys went down almost
immediately as a result of the longer range of the Christian fleet. The
Turks were not lacking in courage, however, and they pressed on in the face
of intense fire from the galleasses, the galleys' guns and crossbowmen on
the Christian decks. Ali Pasha tried to come alongside the Christian ships
in the hope of boarding and here the legendary steadfastness under fire of
the 16th and 17th century Spanish infantryman came to the fore and attack
after attack was beaten off by killing shots from their guns and engaging in
hand to hand combat by the Spanish swordsmen. Then Don John gave the order
to board Ali Pasha's flagship. In a wild melee of attack, retreat and
counterattack played out on decks awash with the blood of the slain, the air
rent by the screams of the wounded and dying the Spaniards forced their way
onto the Turkish galley three times. Twice they were beaten back but finally
they stormed the Turkish poop and a wounded Ali Pasha was beheaded on the
spot. His head was spitted on a pike and held aloft for all the Turkish
fleet to see and the Ottoman battle flag, never before lost in battle, was
pulled down from the mainmast. The Muslim centre broke and retired as best
it could, their courage forgotten in face of the grisly sight of their
admirals head held aloft by the elated Spaniards.

Lessons of the Battle of Lepanto

The Christians had now learnt their lessons. It was a battle to death for
both sides. Negotiations were never on the agenda. The options were fight,
flight or death. The first mistake made by Rodrigo in Spain when he faced
the first Muslim Jihad in 711, he had tried to walk his out by negotiating
his freedom, only to be betrayed and having his head sawed off to be paraded
before the demoralized Spanish army at the Battle of the Guadalete river
between the Muslims and the Spaniards. In this case the Christians never
forgot nor forgave the Muslims. And so mercy was a quality not much in vogue
any longer in the wars between the crescent and the cross. The Christians
were quick to learn the tactics of foul warfare from the Muslims and turn
their new earning against a ruthless adversary. Apart from the bravery of
soldiers on both sides, the tactic that clinched victory was the gruesome
act of beheading of the Turkish Admiral Ali Pasha and his deputy Uluch Ali.
These were unchristian and uncivilized practices, but it was the Muslim who
had introduced them into Europe, and the Christians were quick to learn and
use them against the Muslims.

The engagement at Lepanto had lasted for more than four hours and when the
smoke finally cleared it became apparent that this was a major victory for
the Holy League and a bitter defeat for the Ottoman Turks. Almost 8,000 of
the men who had sailed with Don John were dead and another 16,000 wounded.
On the brighter side 12,000 Christian galley slaves had been released from
their servitude to the Ottomans. The Turks and Uluch Ali's Algerines had
suffered much more grievously. Of the three hundred and thirty Turkish ships
, fewer than fifty managed to escape and most of them were burned because
they could not be made sufficiently seaworthy for further use; one hundred
and seventeen Muslim galleys were captured intact and the rest were sunk or
destroyed after they had been run ashore by the fleeing Turks. A large
majority of the seventy-five thousand men who had entered the battle on the
Muslim side were killed, five thousand were taken prisoner (with at least
teice that number of Christian galley slaves liberated), and only a few were
able to escape either by ship or by swimming ashore. Turkey, for the first
time in several centuries , was left without a navy

The day belonged to Don John, the Holy League and Christendom. When the news
of the victory broke, church bells were rung all over in Europe in a
spontaneous outburst of joy and thanksgiving. The victory at Lepanto, put
paid any further Turkish adventure to invade Italy by sea. More so it left
the European powers without any formidable rival on the seas, paving the way
for aggressive and bolder forays by the European maritime powers to sail
across all the oceans and establish colonies in the Americas, Australia,
Africa and Asia. The Jihad had a penultimate break at Lepanto, the final one
was to come a century later at Vienna in 1683, that put paid all attempts of
the Muslims to overrun Europe. Muslim rule was thenceforth confined to the
south eastern corner of Europe in the Balkans where the seed of Islam was
not uprooted when the Christians liberated those lands between 1850 and
1920. Modern liberalism had set the lethargy in motion a lethargy that came
to roost at Mostar and other cities in the Balkans which saw the slaughter
by the Muslims and Christians of each other. Howsoever ideal may liberalism
be, it is of no value when dealing with the blood-thirsty Muslims. This is
the lesson which the Serbs and Croats learnt in the 1990s. But these being
Christian lands originally, it was the Muslim who were the occupiers and
even if we forget the concept of anyone being an occupier, since the world
belongs to all humans, with their beastlike behavior, the Muslims became
unwelcome citizens wherever they lived, with whomsoever they lived. The
quarreled and fought with everyone, and when there were no non-Muslims
around they fought among themselves. Such is the warlike legacy that Islam
has given the modern age.

But the overarching relevance of the Battles of Palermo and Lepanto was that
they saved the Italian mainland from a Muslim invasion and so also
indirectly the Islamization of Europe when there was no power strong enough
in Central Europe in the 10th to the 15th centuries to resist a successful
Muslim onslaught.
Cuthbert Thistlethwaite
2005-09-11 03:03:12 UTC
Permalink
Shine that over here wrote:

. . .
Post by Shine that over here
But the overarching relevance of the Battles of Palermo and Lepanto was that
they saved the Italian mainland from a Muslim invasion and so also
indirectly the Islamization of Europe when there was no power strong enough
in Central Europe in the 10th to the 15th centuries to resist a successful
Muslim onslaught.
Works for me.

Let's keep up the pressure!
LeNoir
2005-09-10 23:50:20 UTC
Permalink
Young Muslims of Australia
www.yma.org.au

Federation of Australian Muslim Students and Youth
www.famsy.com
Australian Capital Territory (ACT)

Australian National University Muslim Association
www.anuma.org.au

University of Canberra Muslim Students Association
http://ucu.canberra.edu.au/Muslim

New South Wales (NSW)
University of New South Wales Islamic Society
www.isoc-unsw.org.au

University of Technology, Sydney Muslim Society
www.utsms.org.au

University of Western Sydney Muslim Students Association (details from
International Office http://sites.uws.edu.au/international/)

University of Wollongong Muslim Association (see UniCentre for details
http://unicentre.uow.edu.au/

University of Newcastle Islamic Society (details from Newcastle University
Students' Association.
http://www.newcastle.edu.au/association/nusa/clubs.html

Sydney University Muslim Students' Association
www.sumsa.org

University of New England International Muslim Students' Association
www.une.edu.au/studorgs/muslim

Macquarie University Muslim Students' Association (details from The
Chaplaincy Centre http://www.mq.edu.au/chaplaincy

Charles Sturt University Muslim Students' Association
(details from International Office / )
http://www.csu.edu.au/division/internat

NORTHERN TERRITORY (NT)

Queensland (QLD)
Central Queensland University Muslim Student's Association
(details from International Office /)
http://www.international.cqu.edu.au

Queensland University of Technology Muslim Students Association
http://msaqut.4t.com

University of Queensland Muslim Student Association
www.msaqu.org.au

Griffith University Muslim Students' Association
(details from International Office /)
http://www.gu.edu.au/centre/guic/Students

Bond University Muslim Association
(details from Student Council )
http://www.bond.edu.au/services/socialclubs.asp

SOUTH AUSTRALIA (SA)

University of South Australia Islamic Society
(details from International student services
http://www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/learningconnection/intnal/index.htm

University of Adelaide Islamic Student's Society (details from International
Office)
http://www.international.adelaide.edu.au

Flinders University Islamic Association
http://www.geocities.com/flinders_islamic/isi.html

Tasmania (TAS)
University of Tasmania (see Muslim Students Association of Launceston )
www.msal.on.to


VICTORIA (VIC)

Victoria University Islamic Society (see Student Union for details )
http://www.vu.edu.au/Services/Student%20Union.asp

University of Melbourne Islamic Society
http://www.union.unimelb.edu.au/clubs/islamic_society/index.html

Swinburne University Muslim Students Club (details from Student Union )
http://www.ssu.swin.edu.au/

RMIT University Islamic Society and United Muslim University Students
http:\\minyos.its.rmit.edu.au\~rmitis

Monash University Islamic Society
http://www.gippsland.monash.edu.au/muis/

La Trobe University Islamic Society (details from International Office )
http://www.ltuis.org

Deakin University Muslim and Islamic Society
(details from Student Association)
http://www.deakin.edu.au/dusa/clubs/listing.php


WESTERN AUSTRALIA (WA)


Muslim Students Association of Western Australia
http://msawa.tripod.com/cgi-bin/index.html#top

(incorporates Curtin, Murdoch and UWA)
University of Western Australia Muslim Students Association
http:\\msawa.tripod.com

Murdoch University Islamic Association (details from Guild of Students )
http://guild.murdoch.edu.au/

Edith Cowan University Islamic Society (details from International Student
Clubs & Societies
http://www.cowan.edu.au/iso/content/studentsupport/clubs.php

Curtin University Muslim Student Association
http:\\msawa.tripod.com
LeNoir
2005-09-10 23:50:37 UTC
Permalink
Muslims largest population after Christians in Canada

30-05-2003


The Muslim News OnLIne:

The 1981 Canada census reported 98,165 Muslims i.e.0.4% of Canadian
population.
The 1991 Canada census reported 253,265 Muslims i.e.0.9% of Canadian
population an increase of 158% over a decade. The 2001 Canada census
reported 579,640 Muslims i.e.1.9% of Canadian population an increase of 129%
over a decade.

Growth in Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism and Buddhism

The largest gains in religious affiliations occurred among faiths consistent
with changing immigration patterns toward more immigrants from regions
outside of Europe, in particular Asia and the Middle East.

Among this group, those who identified themselves as Muslim recorded the
biggest increase, more than doubling from 253,300 in 1991 to 579,600 in
2001. These individuals represented 2% of the total population in 2001, up
from under 1% a decade earlier.

The number of people who identified themselves as Hindu increased 89% to
297,200. Those who identified themselves as Sikh rose 89% to 278,400, while
the number of Buddhists increased 84% to about 300,300. Each represented
around 1% of the total population.

Immigration was a key factor in the increases for all these groups. The
proportion of immigrants entering Canada with these religions increased with
each new wave of arrivals since the 1960s. Of the 1.8 million new immigrants
who came during the 1990s, Muslims accounted for 15%, Hindus almost 7% and
Buddhists and Sikhs each about 5%.

In terms of age, each of these religions had relatively young populations.
The median age of Muslims was 28 years, Sikhs 30, and Hindus 32, all well
below the median of 37 for the overall population.

Ontario was home to 73% of the Hindu population in 2001, 61% of all Muslims,
and 38% of all Sikhs. Nearly one-half of the Sikh population lived in
British Columbia.

Overview: Canada still predominantly Roman Catholic and Protestant

Seven out of every 10 Canadians identify themselves as either Roman Catholic
or Protestant, according to new data from the 2001 Census.

The census showed a continuation of a long-term downward trend in the
population who report Protestant denominations. The number of Roman
Catholics increased slightly during the 1990s, but their share of the total
population fell marginally.

At the same time, the number of Canadians who reported religions such as
Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism and Buddhism has increased substantially.

Much of the shift in the nation's religious make-up during the past several
decades is the result of the changing sources of immigrants, which has
contributed to a more diverse religious profile. As well, many major
Protestant denominations that were dominant in the country 70 years ago,
such as Anglican and United Church, are declining in numbers, in part
because their members are aging and fewer young people are identifying with
these denominations.

In 2001, Roman Catholics were still the largest religious group, drawing the
faith of just under 12.8 million people, or 43% of the population, down from
45% in 1991. The proportion of Protestants, the second largest group,
declined from 35% of the population to 29%, or about 8.7 million people.

Combined, the two groups represented 72% of the total population in 2001,
compared with 80% a decade earlier.

The 2001 Census also recorded an increase in those reporting simply that
they were "Christian", without specifying a Catholic, Protestant or
Christian Orthodox faith. This group more than doubled (+121%) during the
decade to 780,400, representing 2.6% of the population in 2001. This was one
of the largest percentage increases among all major religious groups.

In addition, far more Canadians reported in the 2001 Census that they had no
religion. This group accounted for 16% of the population in 2001, compared
with 12% a decade earlier.

Respondents in the 2001 Census were instructed to report a specific
denomination or group, even if they were not practising members of their
group. Consequently, these data indicate only religious affiliation. Other
data sources, principally Statistics Canada's General Social Survey, are
available as measures of attendance at religious services.


Slight increase in Jewish faith

The number of individuals who identified themselves as Jewish increased 3.7%
during the 1990s to nearly 330,000.

They accounted for 1.1% of the population in 2001, virtually unchanged
during the decade. Well over one-half of these individuals, about 190,800,
lived in Ontario.

According to the census, nearly one-third (31%) of people of Jewish faith in
2001 were born outside Canada. However, Jewish people accounted for only 1%
of the 1.8 million immigrants who came to Canada during the 1990s.

Those who identified themselves as Jewish were a relatively older
population. The median age of people of Jewish faith was 41.5 years,
compared with 37 for the total population.

The Muslim News
http://www.muslimnews.co.uk/news/news.php?article=4952
LeNoir
2005-09-10 23:52:23 UTC
Permalink
Muhammad - The Most Influential by Michael H. Hart (Muhammad No.1)1
MUHAMMAD
570-632
From the 100, a Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History
by Michael H. Hart


My choice of Muhammad to lead the list of the world's most influential
persons
may surprise some readers and may be questioned by others, but he was the
only
man in history who was supremely successful on both the religious and
secular
levels.
Of humble origins, Muhammad founded and promulgated one of the world's
great
religions, and became an immensely effective political leader. Today,
thirteen
centuries after his death, his influence is still powerful and pervasive.
The majority of the persons in this book had the advantage of being born
and
raised in centers of civilization, highly cultured or politically pivotal
nations. Muhammad, however, was born in the year 570, in the city of
Mecca, in
southern Arabia, at that time a backward area of the world, far from the
centers of trade, art, and learning. Orphaned at age six, he was reared in
modest surroundings. Islamic tradition tells us that he was illiterate.
His
economic position improved when, at age twenty-five, he married a wealthy
widow. Nevertheless, as he approached forty, there was little outward
indication that he was a remarkable person.
Most Arabs at that time were pagans, who believed in many gods. There
were,
however, in Mecca, a small number of Jews and Christians; it was from them
no
doubt that Muhammad first learned of a single, omnipotent God who ruled
the
entire universe. When he was forty years old, Muhammad became convinced
that
this one true God (Allah) was speaking to him, and had chosen him to
spread
the true faith.
For three years, Muhammad preached only to close friends and associates.
Then,
about 613, he began preaching in public. As he slowly gained converts, the
Meccan authorities came to consider him a dangerous nuisance. In 622,
fearing
for his safety, Muhammad fled to Medina (a city some 200 miles north of
Mecca), where he had been offered a position of considerable political
power.
This flight, called the Hegira, was the turning point of the Prophet's
life.
In Mecca, he had had few followers. In Medina, he had many more, and he
soon
acquired an influence that made him a virtual dictator. During the next
few
years, while Muhammad s following grew rapidly, a series of battles were
fought between Medina and Mecca. This was ended in 630 with Muhammad's
triumphant return to Mecca as conqueror. The remaining two and one-half
years
of his life witnessed the rapid conversion of the Arab tribes to the new
religion. When Muhammad died, in 632, he was the effective ruler of all of
southern Arabia.
The Bedouin tribesmen of Arabia had a reputation as fierce warriors. But
their
number was small; and plagued by disunity and internecine warfare, they
had
been no match for the larger armies of the kingdoms in the settled
agricultural areas to the north. However, unified by Muhammad for the
first
time in history, and inspired by their fervent belief in the one true God,
these small Arab armies now embarked upon one of the most astonishing
series
of conquests in human history. To the northeast of Arabia lay the large
Neo-Persian Empire of the Sassanids; to the northwest lay the Byzantine,
or
Eastern Roman Empire, centered in Constantinople. Numerically, the Arabs
were
no match for their opponents. On the field of battle, though, the inspired
Arabs rapidly conquered all of Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine. By 642,
Egypt had been wrested from the Byzantine Empire, while the Persian armies
had
been crushed at the key battles of Qadisiya in 637, and Nehavend in 642.
But even these enormous conquests-which were made under the leadership of
Muhammad's close friends and immediate successors, Abu Bakr and 'Umar ibn
al-Khattab -did not mark the end of the Arab advance. By 711, the Arab
armies
had swept completely across North Africa to the Atlantic Ocean There they
turned north and, crossing the Strait of Gibraltar, overwhelmed the
Visigothic
kingdom in Spain.
For a while, it must have seemed that the Moslems would overwhelm all of
Christian Europe. However, in 732, at the famous Battle of Tours, a Moslem
army, which had advanced into the center of France, was at last defeated
by
the Franks. Nevertheless, in a scant century of fighting, these Bedouin
tribesmen, inspired by the word of the Prophet, had carved out an empire
stretching from the borders of India to the Atlantic Ocean-the largest
empire
that the world had yet seen. And everywhere that the armies conquered,
large-scale conversion to the new faith eventually followed.
Now, not all of these conquests proved permanent. The Persians, though
they
have remained faithful to the religion of the Prophet, have since regained
their independence from the Arabs. And in Spain, more than seven centuries
of
warfare 5 finally resulted in the Christians reconquering the entire
peninsula. However, Mesopotamia and Egypt, the two cradles of ancient
civilization, have remained Arab, as has the entire coast of North Africa.
The
new religion, of course, continued to spread, in the intervening
centuries,
far beyond the borders of the original Moslem conquests. Currently it has
tens
of millions of adherents in Africa and Central Asia and even more in
Pakistan
and northern India, and in Indonesia. In Indonesia, the new faith has been
a
unifying factor. In the Indian subcontinent, however, the conflict between
Moslems and Hindus is still a major obstacle to unity.
How, then, is one to assess the overall impact of Muhammad on human
history?
Like all religions, Islam exerts an enormous influence upon the lives of
its
followers. It is for this reason that the founders of the world's great
religions all figure prominently in this book . Since there are roughly
twice
as many Christians as Moslems in the world, it may initially seem strange
that
Muhammad has been ranked higher than Jesus. There are two principal
reasons
for that decision. First, Muhammad played a far more important role in the
development of Islam than Jesus did in the development of Christianity.
Although Jesus was responsible for the main ethical and moral precepts of
Christianity (insofar as these differed from Judaism), St. Paul was the
main
developer of Christian theology, its principal proselytizer, and the
author of
a large portion of the New Testament.
Muhammad, however, was responsible for both the theology of Islam and its
main
ethical and moral principles. In addition, he played the key role in
proselytizing the new faith, and in establishing the religious practices
of
Islam. Moreover, he is the author of the Moslem holy scriptures, the
Koran, a
collection of certain of Muhammad's insights that he believed had been
directly revealed to him by Allah. Most of these utterances were copied
more
or less faithfully during Muhammad's lifetime and were collected together
in
authoritative form not long after his death. The Koran therefore, closely
represents Muhammad's ideas and teachings and to a considerable extent his
exact words. No such detailed compilation of the teachings of Christ has
survived. Since the Koran is at least as important to Moslems as the Bible
is
to Christians, the influence of Muhammed through the medium of the Koran
has
been enormous It is probable that the relative influence of Muhammad on
Islam
has been larger than the combined influence of Jesus Christ and St. Paul
on
Christianity. On the purely religious level, then, it seems likely that
Muhammad has been as influential in human history as Jesus.
Furthermore, Muhammad (unlike Jesus) was a secular as well as a religious
leader. In fact, as the driving force behind the Arab conquests, he may
well
rank as the most influential political leader of all time.
Of many important historical events, one might say that they were
inevitable
and would have occurred even without the particular political leader who
guided them. For example, the South American colonies would probably have
won
their independence from Spain even if Simon Bolivar had never lived. But
this
cannot be said of the Arab conquests. Nothing similar had occurred before
Muhammad, and there is no reason to believe that the conquests would have
been
achieved without him. The only comparable conquests in human history are
those
of the Mongols in the thirteenth century, which were primarily due to the
influence of Genghis Khan. These conquests, however, though more extensive
than those of the Arabs, did not prove permanent, and today the only areas
occupied by the Mongols are those that they held prior to the time of
Genghis
Khan.
It is far different with the conquests of the Arabs. From Iraq to Morocco,
there extends a whole chain of Arab nations united not merely by their
faith
in Islam, but also by their Arabic language, history, and culture. The
centrality of the Koran in the Moslem religion and the fact that it is
written
in Arabic have probably prevented the Arab language from breaking up into
mutually unintelligible dialects, which might otherwise have occurred in
the
intervening thirteen centuries. Differences and divisions between these
Arab
states exist, of course, and they are considerable, but the partial
disunity
should not blind us to the important elements of unity that have continued
to
exist. For instance, neither Iran nor Indonesia, both oil-producing states
and
both Islamic in religion, joined in the oil embargo of the winter of
1973-74.
It is no coincidence that all of the Arab states, and only the Arab
states,
participated in the embargo.
We see, then, that the Arab conquests of the seventh century have
continued to
play an important role in human history, down to the present day. It is
this
unparalleled combination of secular and religious influence which I feel
entitles Muhammad to be considered the most influential single figure in
human
history.
LeNoir
2005-09-11 00:47:42 UTC
Permalink
MOSQUE EXPANDING TO ACCOMMODATE GROWTH

Nik Bonopartis, Poughkeepsie Journal
http://www.poughkeepsiejournal.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20050829/NEWS01/508290317/1006

NEWBURGH - As more Muslim families have made the mid-Hudson Valley their
home, the crowd at Masjid Al Ikhlas has swelled at Friday prayer services.

With almost 500 members, the tiny mosque is no longer large enough to
support its growing congregation and plans have been made to double its
size.

On Sunday, local Muslims celebrated their plans for a larger mosque with a
groundbreaking ceremony and picnic. Mosque leaders handed their shovels to
the youngest worshippers, deferring to them to break the ground.

"We want to show them the importance of the mosque and have them involved in
the process," mosque Treasurer Ahmed Rehman said.

And the mosque's older members realize after they've laid the foundation for
a Muslim community in the mid-Hudson Valley, it's their youngest members who
will lead local Muslims a decade or two from now as the community keeps
growing.

"We need to accommodate them and their needs," mosque board member Dr.
Quasar Choudhry said, "because our community grew so much in the last couple
of years."
LeNoir
2005-09-11 01:02:58 UTC
Permalink
RUSSIA'S TATARS TURNING TO ISLAMIC ROOTS

Mike Eckel, Associated Press, 8/26/05
http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/apeurope_story.asp?category=1103&slug=Russia%20Young%20Muslims

KAZAN, Russia -- The clothing store across from the mosque features torn
bluejeans, feather boas and brightly colored button-down shirts. But for
customers who want the latest look, it also offers headscarves, veils and
ankle-length tunics.

In Russia's Tatarstan region more and more young people are switching from
Western-style dress to Muslim attire. More than just a fashion, the trend
reflects a surging interest in Islam among the youth of this largely Muslim
region on the Volga River, some 450 miles east of Moscow.

"Young people are looking for something more, something deeper than just
discotheques, alcohol and sex," said the shop's 22-year-old clerk Elizha,
who was dressed in a tightly wrapped blue headscarf and a black jacket and
skirt.

She said many young Tatars - who trace their lineage to the feared Mongol
hordes that raced across Russia in the 12th and 13th centuries - wear
headscarves or some sort of Muslim clothing.

The growing demand for Muslim clothing has enabled store owner Ildar
Gubaydullin to open two shops in Tatarstan's capital in the past two months.
But on the streets of Kazan, whose skyline is a mix of new Russian
architecture, Soviet-era apartment blocks, Russian Orthodox church cupolas
and mosque minarets, the trend is not immediately apparent.

Orthodox Christian Russians are the second largest ethnic group in
Tatarstan, and very few people on a Thursday afternoon were dressed in
anything resembling Islamic clothing.

Still, two teenagers in headscarves, long shirts and ankle-length dresses
strolling near one of Kazan's numerous universities, say many young Tatars
are turning to Islam. Many still wear bluejeans - and sometimes more unusual
items like boas - but headscarves are commonplace. (MORE)
LeNoir
2005-09-11 01:18:14 UTC
Permalink
MUSLIMS IN AMERICAN HISTORY

The Washington Post, 7/21/05
http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/Search?keywords=DISTRICT%20COMMUNITY%20EVENTS

MUSLIMS IN AMERICAN HISTORY, historian Amir Muhammad discusses highly
educated Africans who lived in the American South during the 1700s and
1800s, including Job Ben Solomon, a slave acknowledged for his literacy and
knowledge of the Koran, and Ben Ali Muhammad, an Islamic law scholar and
Georgia plantation manager who organized a group of Muslims to defend the
United States against Britain during the War of 1812, 3 p.m., Anacostia
Museum, 1901 Fort Pl. SE. Free; reservations required. 202-633-4870.
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